Изотекст: Сборник материалов II Конференции исследователей рисованных историй 17-19 мая 2017 г.
Discusses the works of Japanese manga authors of the 1970s – Takemiya Keiko and Hagio Moto, who created a new genre shounen-ai (boy’s love). This genre of manga is intended for female audiences and developed in Japan, but was experienced a considerable influence of European art, especially French literature and cinema.
The article highlights the role and the place of Hokusai Manga (15 volumes, 1814-1878) in the history of Chinese and Japanese picture-books.
Kamishibai (from ‘kami’ meaning paper and ‘shibai’ meaning drama - literally paper drama) is an unusual form of manga which was popular in Japan in the 1930s-1950s. This visual experience consisted of a series of illustrations being shown accompanied by an oral commentary. An examination of Kamishibai reveals some interesting facts and explains why Japanese comics flourished after the Second World War.
In this paper we describe the design and development of a multi-touch surface and software that challenges current approaches to the production and consumption of comics. Authorship of the comics involves drawing the ‘top level’ of the story directly onto paper and projecting lower-level narrative elements, such as objects, characters, dialogue, descriptions and/or events onto the paper via a multi-touch interface. In terms of the impact this has upon the experience of reading and writing, the implementation of paper is intended to facilitate the creation of high-level overviews of stories, while the touch surface allows users to generate branches through the addition of artifacts in accordance with certain theories about interactive narratives. This provides the opportunity to participate in the reading and authoring of both traditional, paper-based texts and interactive, digital scenarios. Prototype comics are used to demonstrate this approach to reading and writing top-level and low-level narratives.
The article discusses the transformations that happened in creating and perceiving fantastical bodies in American comics from 1960s to 2020s.
In recent years, the theme of blackface has again become a pressing issue in American society because of the scandals that have flared up around prominent instances of its use and the taboo of even mentioning it in public. Blackface is a form of theatrical make-up worn by a performer in minstrel shows as a caricature of the appearance of a black person. First appearing in the 19 century, these popular entertainment performances existed for more than 150 years and became part of general American entertainment culture. Moreover, they played a considerable role in reinforcing and spreading stereotypes about the character and behavior of African Americans. This article reveals the main reasons why any visual and costumed parody of people with dark skin is considered socially unacceptable today. The author considers the problem of contemporary American gangsta rap being offensive to African American women through its use of minstrel show racial stereotypes. Furthermore, the author suggests that the representation of black women in American culture is always closely and inextricably linked with the history of racism and sexism in the U.S.; traditionally, black women were contrasted with the ideal images of white women. Despite the fact that well-known caricatures such as Mammy, Sapphire, and Jezebel have undergone significant changes due to social and political evolution in the United States, their negative legacy is still found not just in broader American society, but within the African American community itself.
Ethnic spiritual culture is closely related to birth and development of its carrier (ethnos). This can be proved by a certain transformation of its forms during critical periods in its history. Art, as one of the domains of spiritual culture, expediently reflects the state of mental and moral development of society. At the beginning of 20th century, after the establishment of the protectorate of Japan in Korean society, discussions on art as a national wealth and special people's power intensified due to the actualization of ethnic identity and the activation of mechanisms of psychological defense. This contributed to the emergence of museums, exhibitions, professional associations, unions, educational institutions and, as a consequence, the formation of the scientific community in Korean art. Museums and exhibitions organized by the Japanese government in order to prove the superiority of their culture, however, contributed to the perception of heritage as it is owned exactly by Koreans. This further stimulated consolidating mechanisms of Korean nation. Unlike medieval intellectuals munin, artists of the first half of the 20th century created their works not only guided for its taste or imitating ancient samples. There were new western trends and theories created by Japanese and Korean art critics, which supposed to be main guidelines for them.
In 1930s, with the publication of some analytical works on the history of art and aesthetics, the Korean scientific community faced the problem of choosing ideological orientations and adaptation of new trends in order to create compelling patterns for further development. At the same time changes of the interpretation of the concept misul took place. The concept unfolded into painting and sculpture which was typical for the European tradition. Common interpretation of the concept keundae misul during this period could not be found, as self-perception of some Korean masters as scientists and scribes still dominated. The arts were not included in the scope of professional activities for them and served as a form of interesting and useful leisure. Nevertheless, important changes in Korean art took place in the first half of the ХХ century, as the basis for scientific study and the partly formed conceptual apparatus occurred. There were also schools for training established by force of visualizing the heritage of the past eras, the appearance of articles in scientific journals, newspapers and advent of art critics and scientific communities, the concept of «contemporary art of Korea» was shaping and acquiring the meaning that it is at the moment.
The article is devoted to the problem of or- ganization of a productive dialogue between represent- atives of different sciences during the comprehensive interdisciplinary research of man in the context of tra- ditional culture. The prerequisites to the given prob- lem statement have been formed during a long-term experience of joint field studies made by the authors in Russia (Adygea, Russian North, Bashkiria, Buryat- ia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Khakassia, Ya- kutia and other regions) and Mexico, as well as through the analysis of relevant results of academic and re- search work. As a solution of the given task, the authors develop the methodological construction “metaposi- tion” that allows to approach to complexity and inter- disciplinarity of research through the principle of dia- logue in the common sociocultural field. Metaposition as a technology of organization of polyprofessional co- operation of different experts in a common research space is aimed at development of scientists’ skills of fix- ation, systematization and representation of the re- sults of their work taking into account positions of their colleagues from other subject areas. Realization of this technology leads to creation of a metalanguage and to widening of researcher’s scientific culture (theoreti- cal frames of each expert, style of their scientific reason- ing and personal qualities). The development of meta- position as a stable system of cooperation between different positions of researchers suggests three inter- related stages: defining the research’s common field; re- vealing the borders of scientific positions; constructing the interpositional dialogue. Opportunities of applica- tion of the methodological construction “metaposition” at different stages of field research (before the field, at the field, after the field, during analysis of the field data) are concretized through a relevant algorithm and sup- ported by examples from the field practice.