Концепции постчеловека в философии и технонауке
Time in Arendt's texts from ontological or gnosiological question ordinary for philosophy becomes a sphere of philosophical and political, anthropological reasonings. The article is devoted to disclosure of this specified “transformation” and consideration of concepts of time applied by Arendt as intrinsic aspects of active and mental human life. The author reveals the sense of natality in the Arendt's theory of action, gives the interpretation of Kafka's metaphor “nunc stans” (a gap between the past and future) as a definition of category of thinking, analyzes the influence of Augustine's and Nietzsche's philosophy of time on the formation of the topic of temporality in such Arendt's works as “Vita activa” and “The Life of the Mind”.
In the first book of Tusculanae Disputationes Cicero examines in a form of a dialogue between two unknown persons different attitudes towards the death. A considerable part of the dialogue is devoted to the study and the refutation of the belief that human souls after death do not have any form of existence. Cicero suggests his own interpretation of the Platonic theory of a soul. He proves that the death could be a blessing for a human being and that the soul is immortal. He also speaks about the celestial ascent of the soul. Apparently, these beliefs were based on the Platonic version of Stoicism provided by Posidonius. Cicero tries to produce a convincing evidence of the immortality of the soul, basing on the philosophical positions, but not religious. The authority of philosophy remains one of the main arguments for him.
This collection contains theses of reports of the participants of the twelfth annual conference "Philosophical Prolems of Biology and Medicine: Between Biophilosophy and Bioethics" (Moscow, October 2018)
Novel biotechnologies drastically enhance human capacities. However, initial optimism concerning new methods of therapy and body modification gradually gives way to fears that technologies can easily get out of hand and alter human nature in an undesirable way. Philosophers approach bioethical discussion from various assumptions and perspectives: while some of them believe that new technologies enhance and better human beings, others are concerned those technological innovations can be perilous. This paper overviews the discussion between utilitarians and bioconservatives on the extent to which human enhancement technologies should be permitted. I suggest an alternative communitarian approach to consider human beings primarily as members of political communities and recognition-seekers. I take the debate on doping legalization in sports to demonstrate how communitarianism doesn’t reject new technologies and still argues for making them work for preservation and flourishing of human communities. All major decisions on regulating biotechnologies should be made by communities themselves in a democratic way and drawing on bioethical expertise.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.