Традиционное и новое в лингвистике, переводоведении, лингвокультурологии и лингводидактике: сборник статей по материалам конференции (СПбГУ, 15-16 декабря 2016 г.)
The article highlights the main problems of the research devoted to teaching Portuguese as a second foreign language to Saint-Petersburg Fine Arts Academy students with the usage of the synesthemic lexical chunks. It addresses such issues as teaching languages for specific purposes, cognitive psychology regarding art students, trilingualism, synaesthesia and synaesthemia, as well as it underpins the choice of the Lexical Approach to teach this group of students.
In this article the types and methods of teaching are reviewed with respect to psychological characteristics of a potential student.
By the example of the lexico-semantic group 'Stock market goods, their lists, properties, stock exchange documents and rules' the author shows the origin of traders' slang words and expressions and the structural, derivational and lexicological aspects of stock-market participants' lexis system relations.
The Topicality of the Research: 1. Choice is the core of all creating, and where there is no choice there is no ingenuity; intuition and creativity as the highest functions of human mind (brain) are not easily accessible to analysis but the complexity of this multidisciplinary task should not justify the refusal to solve it. 2. Developing the professional skills of making the appropriate linguistic decision while teaching the translation of foreign (in our case English) scientific texts (into Russian) is based on the detailed cognitive analysis of parallel political discourses that finally results in mastering the academic faculties of choosing the correct translation equivalent involving all the modern political background knowledge. 3. The functional cognitive comparison analysis of the linguistic units that require adequate interpretation is to reveal their contextual actualization, thus, demands the profound knowledge of both political terminology in the Russian and English languages and the current world political situation as a whole. The Translatological Background of the Study. 1. The idea of the given research is initially derived from our previous investigations of the translator’s intuition and creativity as well as our experimental attempts of the thesaurus modeling of human thinking that finally led to the original methodical algorithm of teaching ingenuity in the field of linguistics (practical translation). 2. Professor V.N. Komissarov was right to say in one of his scientific works that translators training programs should be based on a proper understanding and an objective description of the translating process. 3. We claim that • the inner picture of the outer world of each translator as well as the structure of his/her knowledge and associations is subjective and individual; • in case of general universals dominating in the structure of the translator’s knowledge (in his/her brain) the variant of translation finally chosen will be pattern-like (ordinary) while the original structure of knowledge presupposes the emergence of the original intuitive decision; • the task of a professional teacher of translating is obviously to stimulate the student’s ability to involve the so-called “weak associative links” provoking in this way the original creative translation decision. 4. In this connection, our methodical algorithm of ingenuity comprises the following steps: • there should be 3 students minimum in the group as the fewer students, the fewer versions of translation may be offered while we need the so-called “brain storming” to activate consciousness; • students should be taught contemplating their task and building their own mental program of considering the task set; • one should be taught to formulate the target clearly; • the teacher should train the skills of the unfolded logical operation of categorization; • one should be taught the skills of generalizing to see the whole image (cognitive frame) and then summing it up to be able to imagine its individual components (of the system) in order to activate the thinking thesaurus and the information stored in it (the holistic Geschtalt-principle suggested by M. Snell-Hornby is fulfilled in making “the fan” of individual concepts, elements of the image concrete and clearly seen); • one should be taught to analyze the least and less probable alternatives of the translator’s decisions using the method of morphological analysis (according to N. Ovchinnikov); • to teach (according to H. Altshuller, the author of the inventive TRIZ methodology) to formulate the ideal final result, in our case - the most acceptable final variant of translation. The Novelty of the Results Anticipated: 1. The research of language creativity is supposed to be carried out by the example of the discourse analysis of modern political terminology and other non-equivalent vocabulary within the bounds of political contexts while translating and comprehending foreign academic and scientific texts. 2. Our deepest conviction is that teaching linguistic creativity is possible. The inner picture of the outer world and the structure of each person’s knowledge and associations are subjective and individual; the original structure of knowledge presupposes the emergence of the original decision; the task of a professional teacher is to stimulate the student’s ability of involving “weak” associative links provoking the creative linguistic decision. 3. To activate consciousness and the information stored in the human brain students should be taught contemplating their task and building their own mental program of considering the task set; one should obligatory be taught to formulate the target clearly and to analyze all probable alternatives of language decisions. 4. The experience of reflexive thinking is necessary while searching for the right associative “prompt”, “push-stimulus” and theoretical “trigger-word” (such as “context”, “style”, “background”) leading to making the translator’s creative choice (often intuitively) that finally results in choosing the most acceptable variant of translation minding certain definite conscious methodological steps (the algorithm). 5. We believe that the cognitive (neurolinguistic) approach and methods may reveal the human brain zones responsible for making creative linguistic decisions provided the correct technical task has been worked out and the valid number of volunteers have been tested. The Prospects for the Investigation: 1. In the course of the research it has been planned to create an integrated parallel bilingual thesaurus (glossary) comprising some definite representative cases of the examined subject fields of linguistic (political) realities units usage. 2. The scientific performance of the experimental regular seminar is presupposed to be held at our University (in the frames of the “Scientific-Academic Group” project) studying the aspects of the contextual actualization of political notions in the English and Russian discourses by means of the comparative analysis aimed at professional explaining the motivation of the translation equivalent choice. 3. The algorithm of making up an associative thesaurus using the signs of lexical marking as a tool of political discourse analysis is to be taught at the multidisciplinary seminars.
The form whose main function is to express indirect commands, called the third person Imperative, Jussive or Exhortative, when compared to the prototypical (second person) Imperative, shows semantic and formal similarities and distinctions at the same time. The study describes formal and functional patterns of Jussive and places this category within the typology of the related categories, such as Imperative and Optative, based on data from six East Caucasian languages (Archi, Agul, Akhvakh, Chechen, Icari and Kumyk). Five formal patterns of Jussive are attested in these languages, including a specialized form, constructions derived from want, from tell him to do and from make him do and the Optative. Jussive forms may express such meanings as third person command, indirect causation, permission, indifference towards the accomplishment of an action and an assumption. While the Jussive is crucially different from the second person Imperative in that it introduces a third participant, this article shows that it is the addressee, not a third person, who is the central participant of a Jussive situation from both formal and functional points of view.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.