Психология для школы: Психологический анализ актуальных школьных проблем
Personality presentation problem has not been defined in terms of interpersonal relationships in Russian psychology. Self presentation varies in differing levels beginning from the socio-psychological up to the individual level, taking into account either the image of the individual with his personal traits or the image of the social group. At the level of interpersonal relationship reveal anself comprises emotional stability, agreeableness, self-consciousness, openness to self-dialogue. In practice self-presentation is a key piece of a person's social experience, which is very important for his professional activity.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.