Методы активного социально-психологического обучения. Учебник и практикум для академического бакалавриата
The article considers the conceptual approach of creating a set of development tools for active learning methods in a form of competency-based business-game studio. Competence-based business game is an information system, which aims to give a certain level of professional competence while implementing scenarios that are determined by business-process models of the domain. The structure of the gaming studio, suggests a set-theoretic representation of business-game design process. Business game can be represented as a cybernetic system with feedback, which contains both the object of management and the management system. The game is implemented as control and operating machines accordingly. For the construction of the operational machine it is proposed to use a knowledge model in the form of ontology. To represent the automate model it is proposed to use a model of managing business processes of an enterprise. A block diagram of the business-game design process is provided.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.