XVI Апрельская международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества: в 4 кн.
In this paper, I will discuss the existing candidates for action-defining entities and structures (the entities and structures which make some X an action) and propose one more candidate. First, I will examine the standard causal theory which became mainstream in analytical philosophy (although this situation is starting to change). Then I will sketch some arguments against the causal theory of action stemming from the works of earlier analytic philosophers, especially from Wittgenstein’s reflections on the nature of the action. Next, I will try to address the problems of action theory by introducing the concept of will as distinguishing feature of actions. Finally, I will discuss the difficulties concerning the concept of will as I construe it in this paper.
The concept of social exclusion is currently regarded by researchers in social sciences as a multi-dimensional phenomenon which covers a number of interrelated aspects at a time. It normally involves exclusion from economic life, social services, public life and social networks. In 2010, the European Union adopted “Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth” for the period until 2020 which identified clear and quantifiable parameters for reducing the number of the socially excluded in the EU countries. However, no consensus is yet reached at the international level as to the definition of the concept of social exclusion as to the methodology to measure it. The European Union, World Bank, OECD and UN agencies are still using different indicators for assessing poverty, deprivation and social exclusion. In the Russian Federation, the category of social exclusion is rather a theoretical concept than a specific instrument for transforming and implementing social policies. Most Russian studies are discussing the problems of measuring social exclusion at the national level or among specific socially vulnerable population groups. Meanwhile there are now studies concerning spatial dimension of the level of social exclusion of the population of Russian regions. This study is designed to fill this existing gap.
This article is dedicated to the problem of knowledge inthe field of morality. The main idea here is that such knowledge needs so called moral feeling.
The article presents the current practices of system of remuneration for university teaching staff in higher educational institutions in Russia. The research was based on 51 in-depth interviews in the 6 universities and included the analysis of 100 universities’ local acts of the wage system. The main question of the article is: what are the differences in the remuneration systems in the 6 higher education institutions and why these differences occur. We claim that the universities’ remuneration systems are formed under the impact of 4 factors: 1) external formal accountability to the federal and regional governments; 2) strategic goals of the university (which are often formed as a university response to external accountability); 3) the financial resources of the university; 4) its internal features: the number of university teaching staff, centralized or decentralized management, the number of departments of the university and its’ profiles.
Sociological theory concluded for a long time that social integration can not be based only on the mutual economic nterest and interdependence. The important role in this connection belongs to such forms of integration as solidarity (cohesion, consensus, etc.), on the one hand, and social regulation and self-regulation (symbols, values, norms), on the other hand. The first of these forms supposes the unity with some ("one's own") people and common identity with the members of one's own group as such; the other form is the adherence to definite rules having symbolic, value and normative aspects. It can be formulated a kind of sociological quasi-law: the more great and complex is a society, the more important in it are the abstract, general rules and the less important is solidarity, and vice versa.
In this paper we regard the impact of parental family on individual attitudes reflecting sexual liberalization such as homosexuality, abortion and divorce. Earlier in the traditional society all of these types of behavior were strongly disapproved.Now with the process of value change, increasing general tolerance and diversification of behavior more and more people consider these types of behavior as normal.
In this article, a comparative analysis of the subjective social status of formal and informal labor market participants will be used in order to investigate possible differences in their socioeconomic status. Subjective social status approach was introduced in social stratification research and since then numerous empirical studies revealed significant connection between individual’s perceptions about own place in a society and his or her behavior in various spheres (from labor market behavior to consumption, physical, and mental health), relationship with other people.
Current research is devoted to the problem of the ombudsman institution and NGOs interaction. Therefore, the question of the research is the following: which factors influence on the interaction of the ombudsmen and NGOs? The research is made in theoretical and applied dimensions. It is based on both structural, system and institutional methodological approaches. The current study purpose is to develop matrix applicable for the description of ombudsman and NGOs interaction and cooperation. The research is based on 5 cases of Russian regions (Saint Petersburg, Arkhangelsk region, Novgorod region, Kaluga region and Republic of Dagestan). The research is based on qualitative methods such as comparative case-study, descriptive-inductive method, double reflection, triangulation and grounded theory instrumentality that provides an achievement of theoretical results.
Who joins voluntary associations? Based on previous research, we hypothesize that full- or part-time employment makes it more likely that respondents will join voluntary associations. This article examines how employment, supervisory status, and other occupational characteristics (creativity, autonomy or intellectual nature of work) influence membership rates in voluntary associations in cross-national comparison. This research combines individual-level data from the World Values Survey Wave 5 and 6, and country-level Freedom House data, in multilevel regression modeling. This research demonstrates that respondents in the labor force are more likely to report membership in a range of voluntary organizations, controlling for a range of individual and country-level characteristics. Similarly, employed respondents who are work supervisors are also more likely to report membership in most countries, while creativity at work increases the likelihood of membership in some settings.