XIV Апрельская международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества: в 4-х книгах. Книга 2
The goal of “re-defining the public” is closely connected with the notion of “public space”, which is rapidly changing due to availability of modern communication technology and a growing number of active citizens. Our research collective at HSE Public Policy Department has been studying interaction between the civil society and the power in particular political regimes, mostly in Russia and former USSR states, but also in a broader comparative prospective [Belyaeva, 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2011]. The central concept in our studies is public. Our strategic aim is to re-define the concept itself, to see it as a definition of a social actor, and to trace its transformation. Particularly relevant to our field of study are the events that took place in Russia troughout the last year and came to be known as “the White Revolution”, when hundreds of thousands of ordinary citizens gathered to protest against unchangeable power and elections fraud. These events have transformed the public space of a seemingly-controlled political regime. Attempts to describe them in the analytical language of “civil society versus power” were proved inadequate. A new analytical frame and a new conceptual language need to be developed to describe both the new actor and the space in which it acts.
The problem of alcoholism in Russia remains one of the most urgent in the beginning of the XXI century as well as hundred years ago. The features of alcohol use in modern Russian society make it possible to consider it as a very dangerous. Many key parameters of alcohol use and its consequences have dramatically rose during the last 20 years (volume of alcohol consumption, morbidity and mortality rates, criminality because of abusing spirits, susceptibility to alcoholism of various socially- demographic groups and population strata). World health organization (WHO) experts assert that every fifth man in Russia and the CIS countries dies of the illnesses due to alcohol consumption. According to WHO experts, annual consumption of pure alcohol more than eight liters is hazardous to health and also to human life [WHO, 2010]. At the same time Rosstat2 data show that spirits sales (in pure alcohol per capita) exceeded 9 liters a year in 2009 in Russia. But some other experts believe it to be considerably higher (up to 18 liters per capita including moonshine).
Consumption of substances changing of consciousness and producing the dependence effect (in particular alcohol, cigarettes, drugs) is named “addictive behavior”. From the economic point of view, the use of these goods damage population health. This one, in turn, influences incomes, efficiency, expenses on services of public health system. “The total tangible cost of alcohol to the European Union as it existed in 2003, has been estimated at €125 billion, 1,3% of the gross domestic product” [WHO, 2010, p. 8].
This study analyzes the phenomenology of socio-psychological capital viewed as a resource for psychological relations which constitutes the basis for the formation of social capital. A cross-cultural analysis of the impact of value orientations on socio-psychological capital has been performed. Based on a sample of 3 ethnic groups (Russians, n = 103; Chechens, n = 100; Ingush, n = 109), it has been demonstrated that although the impact of individual values on socio-psychological capital obeys logic, it may be culture-specific. Values of Self-Transcendence (Benevolence and Universalism) have a positive impact on the socio-psychological capital of a multicultural society, whereas values of Self-Enhancement influence it negatively. Openness to Change values positively influence civic identity but have a negative effect on perceived social capital. Conservation values positively affect the civic (Russian) identity of the representatives of the Ingush ethnic group.
The study is aimed at estimation of the impact of macroeconomic and industrial factors on the intencity of M&A in Russia in 200--s. The effects of changes in the state regulation of the activity is of a particular interest.
The objective of this work is to show the picture of permanent and temporary international migration movements between the independent states of the former Soviet Union during the years of their independence. Following this objective, were have used all the sources of information available in the CIS countries: censuses, results of the current migration registration, as well as surveys of population and migrants.