Purpose. This study suggests an alternative to confirmatory content analysis (CA) and empirically demonstrates that explorative CA enables new insights into the mechanism of intellectual capital (IC) disclosure. In so doing, this research contributes to both methodological and empirical advancements in IC disclosure research.
Design/methodology/approach. Employing the assumptions of positive accounting theory and taking book value of intangible assets as a reference, our research design utilizes well-established text-mining (TM) tools based on a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. We assume that the degree of cohesion between officially disclosed and evaluated intangible assets on balance sheets and those contextually delivered in narrative form may affect how IC is ultimately disclosed in annual reports.
Findings. Our main finding is in line with the results and criticism of previous studies. We show that companies do not extensively disclose IC in their annual reports. However, some narrative forms for IC disclosure are identified and confirmed by several robustness checks.
Research limitations/implications. First, the findings provide internal validity only for large US enterprises. These firms have similar, well-structured reporting requirements. This analysis might be enriched by an examination and a comparison of different institutional contexts, such as emerging countries. Second, following previous studies, annual reports serve as the source of data. Consequently, the findings are relevant only for mandatory and voluntary disclosure of IC, mitigating the relevance of this study for contexts of involuntary disclosure.
Originality/value. This study make two contributions. First, we add to the empirical literature by offering one more piece of evidence on whether and, if so, the extent to which companies disclose IC in their annual reports. Second, we provide a further examination of confirmatory CA by proposing a number of statistically validated codes and tokens that are indicators of IC communication by companies.
This study explores corporate strategies regarding intangibles. We argue that companies consciously or unconsciously follow particular investment strategies in intangibles by allocating resources among intangible assets. The key contribution of our research is a new way to classify companies according to intangibles employed. The research question is if intangible-intensive profile exists. For the purpose of our each profile is identified on the intersection of the relevant theory of intellectual capital and empirical investigation. The intellectual capital concept enables elaboration of the framework of each company’s profile. The empirical analysis provides us with the clusters matched with the theoretical framework. The database consists of about 1700 listed European companies observed from 2004 till 2011. The database includes figures from annual statistics and financial reports. The information about intangibles was collected from publicly available sources like company websites, patent and information bureaus, and rating agencies. As a result more than 20 indicators are involved in the analysis. K-means clustering allows us distinguishing four major profiles of intangible-intensive companies.
The empirical analysis allows identification of three profiles of companies: two of them (innovative and conservative) represent intangible intensive strategy. The third profile that doesn’t have clear priorities in intangibles was called in this study moderate (low) and was used as a benchmark to examine if intangible-intensive profiles enable better performance.
Purpose: This study explores the strategies adopted by companies during the economic crisis of 2008-2009. It investigates whether it is reasonable for companies to intensify their investment in intangibles during recession periods. The purpose of this paper is to find empirical evidence that companies with clear intangible-intensive profiles are likely to outperform those without a clear strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the intangible-intensive strategies of companies in terms of their dynamics during the pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis periods. Through dummy regression applied to data from more than 1,600 European companies involved in the empirical analysis, the paper aims to show moderating effects from intangible-intensive strategies on company performance, expressed in terms of economic value added and market value added. Findings: The results established in this study shed some light on the global economic crisis in 2008-2009. The findings of this study demonstrate that companies with a conservative profile towards intangibles outperform both those without a defined profile and those with an innovative one. However, an innovative profile enables faster recovery after a crisis. Originality/value: This paper contributes to the literature on the strategic management of companies, and highlights the particular importance of intangible-intensiveness when markets experience systematic distresses. It is emphasized that lessons learned during the recent global economic crisis must be taken into account in the strategic vision of any company.
Purpose: the paper aims to theoretically justify the link between the endowment of intellectual capital and product novelty, and to find empirical evidence for such a link for SMEs in the Russian business environment.
Design/methodology/approach: the study implements an intellectual capital based view and the concept of novelty proposed by Schumpeter to highlight the crucial role of knowledge for transition to a higher level of competition. Drawing on a literature review, the authors determine three specific components of intellectual capital: foreign human capital, ICT capital developed at an international level and cooperation with foreign partners in order to pinpoint a premier position on the next level of the market. For empirical testing of the proposed model, a dataset comprising more than 1400 Russian manufacturing SMEs was used. Estimations were performed with the help of a principal component analysis and ordinal logistic regression.
Findings: the findings reveal that higher intellectual capital endowment promotes the level of product novelty. For Russian manufacturing SMEs, the most important is R&D capital. At the same time, ICT capital developed at an international level and cooperation with foreign partners contribute significantly to the probability of transition to a new market level.
Research limitations/implications: the study employs cross sectional data that restrict the analysis of innovation dynamics.
Practical implications: the study appears to have policy implications for the development of governmental programmes for Russian SMEs such as the creation of IC awareness, training for IC management, special programmes for R&D support and ICT capital accumulation.
Originality/value: this paper proposes a new approach for investigating the “knowledge-innovation” link, shifting the focus from a general analysis of product innovation to a level of novelty for product innovation. This is the first empirical study of the relationship between intellectual capital components and the level of product novelty for SMEs in the context of the Russian business environment.
Purpose. Investments in intellectual capital (IC) are often linked to competitive advantages that improve economic profit and increase the value of a company. However, this effect is reciprocal: Companies that generate higher cash flow can invest more in intellectual capital. The aim of this study is to analyze a dynamic relationship between IC components and economic profit, with a special emphasis on industry specific effects in pharmaceutical, retail, steel, telecommunications, and service sectors.
Design/methodology/approach. Panel vector autoregression (VAR) was used to deal with the mutual influence of intellectual capital components, the lag effect, and heterogeneity. The data was taken from Compustat database and covers the period from 2001 to 2010.
Findings. This research proves that there is interaction between investments in the IC components and company performance. However there are sectoral differences: there is a positive impact of economic profit on human capital in retail; in the steel industry a mutual influence is revealed. Moreover, interaction between different IC components is detected in telecommunication and steel industries.
Originality/value. This is the first study to present clear evidence of the effects of performance on IC investment decisions. The time lag in the effects of IC investments was estimated and compared for different industries. On the methodological side, the paper presents a rather simple method capable of yielding results consistent with other studies and yet rich enough to be applied to an analysis of sectoral differences in dynamic IC investment decisions.
Purpose - This paper presents a framework that is developed for analysis of intellectual capital transformation into companies’ value, including an identification of the key factors of this process.
Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs intellectual capital on the intersection of value-based management (VBM) and the resource-based view (RBV). Starting from a review of the results provided in the literature regarding intellectual capital (IC) evaluation and its link with firm performance, a system of proxy indicators related to IC transformation in both concepts has been designed. The evaluation ability of the developed model was justified using regression analyses.
Findings - A detailed algorithm for intellectual capital evaluation in terms of input–outcome transformation. The Intellectual Capital Transformation Evaluating Model (ICTEM) provides a holistic view of intellectual resources as companies’ strategic investments.
Research limitations/implications - The paper emphasizes that the ICTEM framework could be mostly applied for the analysis of a firm as a typical representative of the industry or the country. In that sense it is not applicable for specific feature analysis of a company.
Practical implications - The paper highlights the ICTEM as a tool of investment decisions, mostly taking into account common trends, the prospects of industries, and economies’ development.
Originality/value - The ICTEM provides the ostensive framework of intellectual capital transformation analysis using a statistical approach.
This study aims to explore the challenges experienced by managers in adopting competency modeling (CM) and recommends an approach to overcome these challenges in promoting competency-based intellectual capital in organizations.
Using in-depth interviews with organizational practitioners in India, this study identifies the challenges of competency modeling in emerging market economies.
This study identified nine contextual and eight non-contextual challenges in implementing CM practices in organizations. The framework addresses the CM challenges using direction setting, negotiation and selling, and monitoring and control dimension of implementation with behavioral, operational and change alignment aspects of CM. The framework proposes a checklist for stakeholders to help them diagnose and analyze the gaps in effective CM implementation.
This article contributes in the concept of competency-based intellectual capital and adoption of CM practices.
This framework will assist the change management practitioners, human resources leaders, organizational development consultants and practitioners as a toolkit to address the challenges in the people management intervention.
The framework suggests a checklist for stakeholders to help diagnose and analyze the gaps in effective CM adoption.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the plausibility of six elements of IC and justify the measurement ability of a set of indicators based on publicly available data for each of the proposed element in order to provide tools to managers for their decision-making process in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach – Core company's intangibles are combined into six intellectual capital (IC) elements that appear after the division of each of the traditional components (human, structural and relational capital (RC)). The human capital includes management and human resources capabilities (HRC). Structural capital is divided into innovation and internal process capabilities (IPC). RC contains networking capabilities and customer loyalty. In drawing on the relevant literature each element is described through a set of indicators collected from publicly available data. The validity of proposed IC model is justified through structural equation modeling. Each element is tested on a sample of more than 1,650 listed European companies over the period of 2004-2011. Findings – The study gives empirical support of three component IC structure and its decomposition into second level. The findings reveal that implementation of KM plays a significant role for HRC as well as for IPC.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a framework that helps to analyze the dependence between personal welfare and individual (personal) intellectual capital (IIC). The authors also introduce the system of proxy indicator for personal intellectual capital (IC) of football coaches. Design/methodology/approach – This paper employs the idea that personal welfare depends on personal IC, particularly, talent. That is why initially the literature analysis of welfare phenomenon was provided. Then the system of available proxy indicators of football coaches’ IC was designed. To achieve the purpose a linear function is estimated with the help of ordinary least squares method. Findings – The chosen set of IC proxy indicators explain the significant part of coaches’ salary. Such proxies as improvement in the championship table and coach’s image in media have a significant and positive influence on coach’s salary. Whereas, lowering the position of the club does not considerably affect the coach’s wealth. A clubs’ financial capacities and budget also influences coaches’ salaries. Research limitations/implications – Traditional limitation of proxy indicators-based studies is connected with their eligibility and complexity. Practical implications – The possibility to codify IC of a person enables to analyze core competencies necessary in a particular activity or profession for success achievement. Moreover a policy of inequality reduction should take into account that intangible assets are at the base of those persons wealth. Originality/value – This is the first paper that employs IC concept to people wealth while previous literature is dedicated to companies’ or countries’ IC.
The purpose of this study is to present a tool to categorize companies as potentially profitable on the basis of an intellectual capital (IC) analysis. The paper distinguishes two crucial attributions for picking shares: IC and capitalization of IC-based growth potential. Using these two attributions, the author creates a portfolio from a sample of European companies and annually rebalances it. To test its attractiveness, the author then compares the portfolio with benchmarks and random portfolios during the period from 2006 to 2013 using a Sharpe coefficient. The comparison of the constructed portfolio with the benchmarks demonstrates the importance of IC for market investors and the validity of the proposed tool. The Sharpe ratio of the portfolio is significantly higher than the mean and median Sharpe ratios of random portfolios. In addition, the importance of IC for choosing proper investment goal increases in crisis.
Universities have become both increasingly entrepreneurial and international over the past few decades. We still, however, know little about the relationship between the two trends. This paper investigates the effect of international exposure of university faculty members on university entrepreneurial culture.
Using a specially constructed dataset of the entrepreneurial activities of 507 computer science faculty members—among whom 138 are returnees—from 21 research-intensive universities in China during 2007–2017, the study empirically investigates the relationship between foreign experience and academic entrepreneurial activity back home. We control for characteristics of the faculty member and the location of the university.
Academic tenure overseas is found to positively affect academic entrepreneurship. The length of stay abroad also affects the relationship: returnee academics with foreign Ph.D. degrees are more likely to start new businesses than returnee academics with shorter postdoc experience overseas. The economic gap between the host (foreign) and home country (China) does not have a statistically significant effect on returnee academic entrepreneurial activity.
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to empirically investigate returnee academic entrepreneurship. It provides indications on how foreign educational background affects academics entrepreneurial activities.
Focusing on managerial problems related to the measurement of intangibles, this paper develops and validates a hedonic-pricing methodology for the evaluation of the intangible resources of companies obtaining their shadow prices.
The paper adapts a hedonic-pricing methodology developed primarily for markets in real estate and secondhand cars to define how much intangibles may contribute to companies' market value. A certain calibration of the original tool has been developed to make this methodology appropriate for interpretation and practical use. The main advantage of this approach is that it allows for an evaluation of the shadow prices of intangible resources. These prices can be interpreted as the market value of the intangible resources which are not reflected on the balance sheet.
The results of this study demonstrate that hedonic pricing with a self-selection correction generates robust estimates. As one can see, the positive contribution of a high endowment of intangibles for all shadow prices is confirmed through estimations using two different techniques. Meanwhile, the negative effect of a low endowment is even more evident for the baseline model. This model shows consistent negative shadow prices for the majority of underinvested intangibles. Brands have the highest shadow prices in the introduced models; human capital, as measured by the qualification of top management and investments in employees, has likewise demonstrated high prices. However, most structural resources seem to be not reflected to a large degree in companies' market value.
This paper brings new opportunities to obtain the monetary value of intangible resources based on estimated market prices of a corporation's resource portfolio. These prices may be used for several purposes – for example, benchmarking for performance management, capital budgeting or knowledge-management practices. Moreover, by having methodological value, this study opens ways to evaluate any other intangibles which are not explicitly discussed in the empirical test of this particular study.
This study primarily contributes to the methodological advancement of evaluation of corporate intangible resources. It departs from the conventional hedonic-pricing mechanism to identify cogent estimates to intangibles in monetary terms. Importantly, this mechanism implies individual shadow prices for specific intangible resources which makes the contribution of this study unique for the existing literature, both within resource-based and value-based views.
The study aims to investigate whether and how digital transformation, in terms of digital collaboration, joint efforts with internal/external partners to achieve common goals and the adoption of digital tools supporting this practice, affect social innovation capital in the context of small innovative enterprises (SIEs).
The research hypotheses derived from the analysis of the literature, evaluating how sharing resources, sharing intensity and digital patterns affect the collective capacity of SIEs to innovate, were investigated by applying multiple regression analysis. Data were retrieved from a sample of Italian SIEs through an online survey.
The main findings suggest that the propensity to spread resources and the sharing intensity positively affect the collective capacity of SIEs to innovate. Also, the effect of resources sharing on collective innovation increases as more digital patterns are used as tools. The connection is weaker for the intensity of resources sharing.
The study is conducted on Italian SIEs, a particular cluster of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). It would be interesting to compare and contrast the results of an analysis of a large sample of international companies, of different sizes and belonging to digital and non-digital sectors.
The results enrich the existing literature on social innovation capital, by clarifying its competitive benefits on the characteristic context of the SIEs and underlining the mediating role of the digital patterns.
Based on an efficiency analysis of the Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEI), the purpose was to demonstrate that the Key Performance Indicators’ analysis leads to a misinterpretation of the dynamics of National Systems of Entrepreneurship (NSEs). This might hamper the formulation of sound initiatives in other economies, with relevant implications for developing countries.
This study categorized GEI indicators into output and input indicators. Following this procedure, each dimension was analyzed separately and then compared to each other, considering countries’ productivity rates. The main focus is given to the case of the US, the usual benchmark for NSEs and leader in the GEI Index. Lastly, a taxonomy of NSEs according to their efficiency levels was developed.
The findings of the analysis demonstrates that innovation-driven economies with lower positions in GEI ranking often have higher productivity rates when compared to economies with higher positions in GEI ranking. Specifically, the US appears not to be a good benchmark in terms of NSE efficiency.
The study’s approach is limited in scope by data availability on NSEs and the use of GEI, a representation of aggregate patterns of country-level entrepreneurial dynamics. More refined data are needed in order to clarify some insights from this research.
The perception of systemic efficiency should be considered more thoroughly when designing dedicated entrepreneurship-oriented policies in other countries that aim at establishing a more vibrant entrepreneurial system while facing resource constraints.
Simplistic views of systemic aspects may hamper the formulation of sound entrepreneurship-oriented initiatives with particularly relevant implications for public policy in laggard economies.
The value of this article relies on applied a simple metric – efficiency ratio – order than, e.g. data envelopment analysis to portray a key issue related to the interpretation of supranational rankings related to the entrepreneurship ecosystem make mainly by policymakers and scholars that is: pick the 1st one, follow the leader.
The purpose of this paper is to present a comparative analysis of the contribution made by intellectual capital (IC) to company performance at company and industry levels in the Russian context. It examines the performance effect of IC using a multilevel approach.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of efficiency of corporate universities. An efficiency is defined in relative terms: as having relatively better performance in comparison to other companies. Different indicators of performance were employed in order to analyze short-term and long-term efficiency. A comparative analysis of European companies and emerging Russian companies is performed in order to understand if there are country differences in the efficiency of corporate universities. Design/methodology/approach To avoid potential omitted variable bias, fixed effect within estimator is employed. This estimator enables controlling for a firm-specific time-constant effect which conditions company’s performance and is responsible for other individual traits. The rest of the characteristics are controlled with a proxy, which are traditional for corporate finance studies. Findings There are contradictory results for the efficiency of a corporate university; for the European companies, a corporate university brings positive effect for the short-term performance, nevertheless, as the authors have found that it destructs value in long term. A company with a corporate university has 70 percent less market value added than an average company. There is a negative short-term synergy while the long-term synergy is positive. The results for the Russian sample are very consistent: corporate universities have negative or neutral effect on the performance. Originality/value This study contributes to the literature about strategic management and human resources management. It addresses the issue on efficiency of corporate universities in companies considering this as one of the key strategic investment in human resource policy. It appears that the corporate university is not a panacea for all companies to develop their human development policy.