Проблемное поле российской системы образования в новых цивилизационных условиях: философский аспект
The authors analyze the data of the representative survey of the Russian citizens carried out by Levada Center in April-May, 2009 (N=2000) and compare them with the findings of the Center previous researches. The Russians nowadays mention money as the main value, deficiency and hypothetical factor for solving all the problems including education and employment (the authors speak about this super value of money as of the poor society mythology). The paper shows extremely little concern of urban population and urban youth for quality education per se and lack of real efforts aimed at increasing this quality. It refers mainly to high school but to a considerable degree to higher educational institutions. The leading motive for acquiring higher education is getting a good (that is, well-paid) job. The core problem of higher school 118 for the majority of population and its younger part is excessively high payment for training and its discrepancy with the quality of education received by students, and correspondingly new inequality that has appeared in recent years in access to higher education, infringement of the rights of less well-to-do or provincial applicants.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.