Социальные представления о прошлом: источники и репрезентации
The problems of the man are examined in the context of the state development, human inner world, and perception of historical events. The researcher has used their private sources such as diaries, memoirs and letters which reflect the levels of spiritual life and psychology of people living in individual historic ages.
Historical views are the most important factor in the development of the ethnic self-consciousness. They have an impact not only on the methods of representation of the past, but also on the perception of the modern world. African intellectuals played an important role in the formation of the collective historical memory of Africans and in the understanding of their own past. Literature (historical prose) had a big influence on this process. Their main mission African intellectuals saw in the restoring the historical justice and showing that African people of Southern Africa have not been deprived of greatness, that they were the creators of their history. However, their writings were full of fiction and biased assessments in the interpretation of historical events. The first African historians have been the authors of new historical myths, many of which are alive to the present time.
In article mass ideas of Russians on justice in comparison with similar representations of citizens of the USA, Germany and China are investigated. Having placed ideas of justice in the general ideological context, the author allocates their speciﬁcs both in consistently liberal, and in consistently right authoritative zones. It is noted that many estimates don't oppose to their transfer to the left ideological space. Thus today it is impossible to deﬁne, what tendency in Russia will win – authoritative or democratic.