Современные трактовки эволюционных и антропоэкологических аспектов гипотезы «экономного генотипа»
Materials and methods. Scientific literature to review was collected from the PubMed database (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), and some other publications were collected from open internet sources.
Results. Herein we represent a review of current data regarding the thrifty genotype hypothesis. The paper reviews the main theses of the hypothesis, its basis, and the arguments of supporters and critics. The evolutionary and anthropoecological aspects of the thrifty genotype hypothesis are discussed.
Discussion. A significant part of socially important human diseases have a hereditary component. There are a number of genes, individual alleles of which or their combinations make the carrier susceptible to the disease. In the case of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, the hypothesis of a “thrifty genotype” was put forward as a combination of gene alleles that provided their carriers with advantages in the prehistoric and historical past, but provoked morbidity now. Such a genotype should have previously been under the positive selection, whereas in the modern world, it must play a negative role. It is also obvious that the expression of the thrifty genotype as well as the genes that form it and their alleles, should depend on anthropoecological conditions: the ecology of the region where the human population lives and their economic system. The purpose of the proposed review is to systematize modern views on the problem of thrifty genotype with special attention to the evolutionary and anthropoecological aspects of the problem.
Conclusion. A significant number of experimental studies and reviews give an idea of the distribution of thrifty genotypes in populations of different origins and anthropological affiliations. However, the coverage of material and inclusion of population data in the analysis is very uneven. The genetic geography of thrifty genotypes remains poor and, commonly, insufficiently studied. The most complete and methodologically correct systematization of primary materials on the prevalence of thrifty genotypes, their connection with the ecological conditions of the natural environment, and anthropogenic factors, including traditional types of farming and the nature of nutrition, remains still relevant.