Этнический фактор развития человеческого потенциала Калмыкии и Тувы: сравнительный анализ
The article presents a comparative analysis of the issues related to the development of human potential in two republics in Russia today — in the Republic of Kalmykia and the Republic of Tuva. The republics have relatively similar rankings in terms of human development index. The conclusions of the research are based on an analysis of academic literature on these issues, the results of previous sociological surveys of the population conducted by the authors in the republics of Kalmykia and Tuva, as well as data from expert interviews (16 experts in each republic) which have become the main empirical basis of this article. The interviews in the republics were obtained in the period from December 2020 to January 2021.
Contemporary research into regional development is primarily aimed at providing new insights into human potential. Since the indicators are limited, the informal economy is developed and there are features of the state policy of redistribution, there is an increasing interest in using qualitative research methods. They can provide a more detailed study of the characteristics of specific regions, including ethnocultural and other factors.
According to the experts, the ethnic factor has a significant impact on the specific features of economic activities among the indigenous peoples of Kalmykia and Tuva. The respondents believe that traditional economic activities should be supported and conditions for their preservation and development should be created. Among the problems of human potential development, the experts of Kalmykia noted the indebtedness of the population and the loss of cultural traditions of the Kalmyks. The Tuvan experts identify the most common problems among the Tuvans. They are caused by lack of financial literacy, impact of social dependency, poor adjustment and adaptation to the conditions of a market economy. The experts from Kalmykia and Tuva pointed to equality in educational opportunities and medical care for all ethnic groups in the republics. There is a positive trend of increasing the people’s level of education in Kalmykia and Tuva, because education is of high value among the indigenous peoples of these republics. However, this fact also has negative consequences: the increasing migration outflow of the population from the republics, the decline in the command of native national languages and the loss of other cultural traditions.