Критическое мышление как навык ориентации человека в обществе модерна
This article presents an attempt to define the concept of "critical thinking" through an analysis of the main features of modern society. The authors analyze in detail the problem of the lack of a unified definition of "critical thinking" in modern educational philosophy and pedagogy. Despite the fact that such a definition does not exist, the necessity of developing this skill can be found in normative documents, and the practice of teaching "critical thinking" has been widespread for a long time. In this article the authors polemize with the common understanding of "critical thinking" that is associated primarily with the development of logic and familiarizing students with the theory of argumentation. The realities of modern society connected with the disappearance of the authority of traditions, high speed of changes, development of new technologies and emergence of new "risk profiles", as shown in the article, force us to consider the need to form more complex, integrated skills, which are not formed without the development of "humanitarian thinking", "historical consciousness" and a sense of civic identity and responsibility. These aspects are illustrated in the article by analyzing the sociological theory of modernity by E. Giddens and the "compensatory theory of modernity" of the Ritter school (G. Lubbe and O. Marquard). The article argues that the development of these competencies should be included in the concept of "critical thinking".