The family as an informal institution has a diverse influence on the child, including his academic performance. In childhood, this influence is pronounced. As the child grows older, the influence of the family transforms and may change the nature of its influence. Generally, in existing studies, the authors focus on the academic performance of one particular group — either schoolchildren or students. The paper presents a comparative analysis of the results of studies of the family influence on the schoolchildren and university students’ academic performance. The comparison is made according to two factors — the socio-economic status of the family and the social capital of the family. This paper examines the question of whether family factors that have proven their influence on the performance of schoolchildren retain their influence on the performance of students during university education. A literature review of Russian and foreign studies has shown that in general the socioeconomic status of the family and the social family capital have a positive effect on the academic performance of both schoolchildren and students. However, some issues of these factors did not confirm their importance (for example, the presence of brothers and sisters). In addition, it was found that the influence of the family changes over time and is determined by the nature of the relationship between parents and students. The results of this review may be of interest to researchers in the field of education, pedagogy and psychology of learning, employees of educational institutions, as well as parents of schoolchildren and students.
Parent involvement is understood as parents’ participation in children’s academic development and education, including parenting educational practices, beliefs and motivational attitudes. This review is aimed at three goals. First, to track the interrelations between educational trends and changes in research questions in parent involvement studies based on the history of parent involvement studies in the USA. Second, to show main concepts, results, models and trends in parent involvement research. Third, to present the state of art in Russian parent involvement research literature. The importance of parent involvement research in Russia has been supported by both educational policies, and by active position of students’ parents who want to know for sure what amount of their involvement is beneficial for their children
This article aims at reestablishing the context of the educative model, carried out by Jan Amos Comenius in his famous work Orbis sensualium pictus (1658). We have demonstrated that pedagogical thought of Comenius brings together two rival models of the production of knowledge and studying sciences: mathematical and topical. The heuristic potential of the topical method and the “science of the verisimilar” have been examined on the basis of the G. Vico’s juridical topics, considered against the background of his predecessors (Caccialupi, Vultejus). It has been shown that the didactic model, appealing to the common sense – in Comenius as well as in other followers of the rhetoric epistemology – is neither the deduction of the manifold experience of the world from one minimal foundation by the means of the single-type logical operations, nor an all-embracing classification. This model aimed at mapping the manifold reality and persuading the audience by means of a sophisticated repertoire of rhetorical skills; its main goal was the formation of the “civil nature” of a person. This ability of the probable reasoning turns out to be a condition of possibility of the complete definition of a thing (notio completa), which simultaneously endows the speech with “fullness” (oratio plena). Thus, the logical ideal of the complete definition and the rhetorical perfection of the speech come together.
A modern high school is designed to solve at least two new problems. The first one is determined by the fact that a high school graduate must have not only an academic background that allows him to enter a University, but also a set of skills and attitudes that allow him to become a successful student. The Second problem is preparing a high school graduate for life in a digital society. Possibility to create conditions for a high school student to acquire the qualities of a successful student largely determined by the model of the school in which he studies, the curriculum (curriculums) implemented by it.
Over the past year, the authors of the article participated in the development of prospective models of high school, as well as conducted a pre-project study among successful high schools in various megacities of Russia and the world. One of the challenges faced by the authors was the need not only to find an approach to describing the models of the schools studied but also to get a way to highlight their strengths and weaknesses for subsequent more detailed acquaintance with the successful experience.
In this article the authors provide a simple, accessible way for managers-practitioners to describe the high school model, as well as a tool for examine a model which was developed during the implementation of the research project.
Applying the method of describing the model and evaluating the curriculum implemented by the higher school will help high school principals to get reliable information about the school they lead. Specially organized information about the school, ready for comparison with others located in similar conditions, solving similar problems, should allow school leaders to make justified, accurate management decisions.
Young teachers is a special group, which requires special attention. The young teachers are those who will become the nucleus of the teachers' corps within the next few years and will implement the ongoing educational reforms. This paper is a review aimed to explore areas of young teachers researches in Russia and other countries.
Based on the review, several areas for the study of young teachers can be identified: the adaptation studies, studies of professional competence of new teachers, professional development and personal characteristics of teachers.
Therefore, based on the data of existing studies, it is possible to identify the main characteristics that describe a cohort of young teachers. However, not only descriptive but also comparative analysis might be interesting and informative. What happens to the young teachers in a few years? How do they differ from the older age groups of teachers? The comparative analysis also can expand the context and provides useful results.
The work discusses the reasons for organizing pre-university medico-biological education. The results of practical research and understanding of the current problem of education: early career guidance or pre-professional education in Preuniversary are presented. The advanced environment of education should be aimed not only at preparing exam tasks, which most schools rely on in the final grades, but also at modeling individual educational trajectories of the student to form the motivational component of the high school student's personality, which leads to the success of the high school student with an understanding of their purpose. The main challenges and prospects of creating a structural division of the Volgograd State Medical University (VolgSMU) “Preuniversary” are analyzed. The expected results which must meet the design of modern medical education are formulated. The analysis of risks and ways to minimize them is realized. The economic motivation of the project is presented with calculations of the planned indicators for the income and payments of the institution, the cost of training with in-depth study of individual subjects, subject areas and income from the educational activities of the subdivision, the payback periods of the project are calculated. The conclusions on the comparative attractiveness of the educational product and plans for the implementation and further promotion of the project are presented.
Introduction. The paradigm of the modern higher education focuses on individual learning experiences and satisfaction of students. The communication between teachers and students has a direct influence on these factors. It cannot be simply reduced to formal in-class interactions as such contacts inevitably include interpersonal components and expand beyond classroom settings. The present study considers out-of-class communication as any time faculty and student spend during non-classroom time. The purpose of the research is multifold: to identify the specific features of this process and to find out the students' and teachers' characteristics that influence their interest and actual involvement in out-of-class communication. Research Methods: the research is based on a psycho-sociological approach and looks at the development of values, behaviors and attitudes to the outside world in the interpersonal context. To identify the presence and levels of interest in and experience of out-of-class communication and the influence of the participants’ characteristics on these, the authors conducted a survey among students and faculty. Results. Students reported a noticeable interest which seemed to be related to their grades and the year of study: 1st year students and high-achieving students were more enthusiastic. However, the real experience of out-of-class communication with faculty was considerably lower than the expressed interest. Faculty were also rather interested in this type of interaction, especially females, young teachers and teachers over 40. The actual experience was lower than the reported interest. Conclusions. The identified gap between the level of interest and real experience may call for active involvement of educational managers and participants of the learning process in order to promote out-of–class communication. The awareness of the fact that certain characteristics of students and faculty may have an impact on their perceptions and behaviors could assist in developing and implementing efficient measures to harmonize and improve the quality of out-of-class interaction.
In the context of the digital transformation of education, the need for analytical tools to describe, identify the causes of success and failure, as well as determine the next development steps for updating educational work, is growing. The methodology for assessing the use of innovative IT-supported educational work in schools is proposed. The methodology combines the survey's data collected from the educational process participants (descriptive tools) and the interpretation of the changes provided by the prescriptive models. The methodology has grown from the attempts to evaluate the use of innovative IT-supported methods of educational work in the school during the pilot SELFIE project (Selfreflection on Effective Learning by Fostering the use of Innovative Educational Technologies) in the academic year 2017/18. The proposed methodology can be used for a meaningful interpretation of the surveys' data on the use of digital technologies in educational organizations.
In the article values and models of behavior in relation to representatives of outgroups and their transformation during the first half of XX century discuss on the basis of the analysis of the content of textbooks for primary school. Following trend was identified: the installation of the in-group favoritism broadcast pupils at discussing ecological phenomena slightly less active than in the textbooks of reading. The purpose of such an influence is obvious: intergroup differentiation leads to the awareness of the members of the group of his oneness, combined with the refusal from communication with representatives of outgroups.
As a result the ingroup becomes more salient features, the evaluation of «their» (positive) and «strangers» (negative) are becoming more categorical.
The educational process always requires the implementation of scientificity, accessibility, visibility, systematicity and consistent presentation of educational information. Today, the flow Д.В.Буримская 104 of educational information is growing, that is difficulties for the presentation, retrieval, learning and application of this information in the student’s professional activities. At the same time, employers need a graduate who has not only l the professional knowledge and communication skills and abilities, but also has a good command of ESP. For this purpose, it is necessary to identify and determine the key didactic principles for ESP content based on the online courses, because learning a foreign language at universities becomes impractical now. Teaching staff focus on forming and developing an integrative competence for graduating students based on complying with the requirements of acts and laws of the Ministry of education.
The 2020 pandemic has forced universities to change their traditional teaching format and move most of the courses to the distance learning format. This study aims to analyze the experience gained so far in translating courses online, compare different forms of online learning and formulate recommendations for their application.
Generalization of previous studies is carried out using Shannon’s theoretical model of communication: message is transmitted through channel of communication to the recipient by the source with the feedback. At the same time, the analysis of synchronous and asynchronous learning formats is carried out separately, and the possibility of combining the synchronous and asynchronous models within the framework of a single educational course is analyzed.
Based on the study, we can conclude that the use of online courses of any format has a positive effect on the effectiveness of the educational process as a whole. However, there is no evidence to which of the two work formats - synchronous or asynchronous - is more preferable both from the point of view of teachers (both the source) and listeners (recipient) and the effectiveness of feedback. Moreover, different formats are preferable for learning different material and acquiring different competencies. Therefore, in the work, it is concluded that it is the combination, instead of the separate application of synchronous and asynchronous teaching methods, that contributes to an increase in the effectiveness of teaching. However, this is possible only if teachers have special competencies, their ability to work online and use its communication channels.
This research is focused on the system of evaluating students’ scientific and research work written in French for Russian and francophone experts at the Higher School of Economics International scientific conference for graduate and postgraduate students “La France et la Francophonie d’aujourd’hui” in the years 2017 and 2018. The authors analyze the current evaluation system of students’ scientific and research work, assess every criteria and scale. The authors hypothesized the necessity of renewing the evaluation system. Surveys among students and experts about the relevance of the current criteria and necessity of evaluating students’ scientific and research work were carried out to corroborate the hypothesis. Upon the research a renewed evaluation system was proposed, which will be approbated at the Higher School of Economics International scientific conference for graduate and postgraduate students “La France et la Francophonie d’aujourd’hui” 2020. The renewed system includes detailed comments for the experts and higher grades are given to the criteria of a hugher importance, e.g. structure and content, presentation skills, and language fluency and accuracy.
The article reconstructs theatrical work and stage art in the educational activities of the prewar school. Weakly reflected in modern scientific literature, these areas of school affairs have not been studied at all from the point of view of the formation of action schemes, skills that were fundamental for yesterday's schoolchildren in the space of war. The reconstruction of the school work of the pre-war time based on published and archival sources shows the great importance that was attached to the formation of students' skills of switching to different modes of perceiving the world, self-identification with other people's experience and life circumstances. It was this ability acquired in school years to enter different role models that actively helped young front-line soldiers to quickly master as junior and middle-level commanders and establish companionship with age-old colleagues who have completely different life baggage. And the roles in the plays of military content, played or seen in the school theater, became a kind of initiatory practice, which contributed to adaptation to the real military situation. The article reveals the methods of conducting lessons and extracurricular activities using theatrical and entertainment elements, which laid in students an emotional, tinted and unambiguously intolerant attitude towards all forms of social oppression and social injustice. These reactions, which became part of the “habitual memory” of students, determined the violent rejection of the enemy, with its goals of enslaving the peoples of the USSR, from the first days of the war. The article discusses models of heroic behavior in the war, which were formed with the help of the theater and reflected in the specific heroic achievements of recent schoolchildren.
The “teacher-student” relationship plays a particular role in the learning and therefore it has long been in the focus of the attention of many researchers and practitioners. The pattern of the “teacher-student” relationship varies from the individual characteristics of the participants in the process, one of whom is a teacher. One of the teacher characteristics is teacher expectations. The purpose of this paper is a review of the existing literature on the topic of teachers' expectations and finding the poorly investigated area in this topic. The results of the review show firstly that teachers form their expectations based on the student's academic achievements and behavior in school as well as their own beliefs. Secondly, teachers may translate their expectations to students through their behavior, and students can react to this behavior, so it can lead to the emergence of the phenomenon of “self-fulfilling” prophecy. Thus, teacher's expectations can either positively or negatively affect students' academic achievements. Finally, despite that teachers' expectations have been studied for a long time, there are still poorly studied areas, for instance, the study of the stability of teachers' expectations is one of the new areas of research.
The paper analyzes the environmental aspects of education on the background of socio-economic context of reality simulated in the textbooks.