Театр недоверия и пессимизма (опыт социологического анализа арт-проекта)
As public institutions that serve society by conserving and communicating the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity, museums aim to provide opportunities for social groups to engage with their unique collections and gain ‘unforgettable’ experiences (López-Sintas et al., 2012). As with many other cultural institutions, museums are highly dependent on national histories, traditions and funding, and vary widely by organizational structure, audiences and exhibits.
In Russian cultural context it becomes more widespread when the objects of material culture and arts appear to provoke not only disagreement among the experts but also conflicts and struggle between broader socio-political groups, apparent in frequent public scandals, protests, trials etc. It seems necessary to develop a theoretical framework that contributes the analysis of such cases and the objects generating them. In this paper we examine the conceptual resources applied by the social researchers to graffiti – the symbolic object that constantly, for decades excites contradictory reactions and public debates in different countries, including Russia. We describe the two approaches (so called “constructivist” and “structuralist”), demonstrate their limitations and claim that, while these two approaches are used by the same researchers as supplementary, they contradict each other. In conclusion we propose the alternative approach which is aimed at the reconstruction of local configuration of relations (between different agents, between agents and space, between agents and culture objects belonging to the space, and etc.) which is questioned and reconsidered through the “problematic” culture objects.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.