Мятеж декабристов (в сравнении с дворцовыми переворотами в России и военными революциями в странах Западной Европы)
The article reconstructs the circumstances of adopting the first artistic conventions that allowed Russian artists at the beginning of the nineteenth century to create their first versions of the national past. The origin of new visual symbols such as national heroes, costumes, and typical ethnic looks is dated and their semantics deciphered based on the analysis of such sources as notes describing the motifs to be pictured in history paintings as well as patriotic press publications and pieces of history painting and sculpture. Their reception by the public and the complications of their subsequent verbal conceptualization are presented within the context of a controversy between the publishers of two art journals of the 1820s, Paul Svinyin and Vasily Grigorovich. Vishlenkova believes that the priority of visual language in the Russian national project had to do with the specific cultural situation of the Russian Empire, particularly at the turn of the nineteenth century. A low literacy rate meant that Russian elites could not rely on verbal language as a tool for mobilizing support and generating imperial, ethnic, and national solidarities. That's why students of nationalism find no convincing written evidence of a Russian national consciousness either in the eighteenth century or in the first three decades of the nineteenth. In contrast to their unsuccessful efforts, Vishlenkova’s analysis of the visual language of describing the past detects elements of the national imagination of the time at issue. The author defines the 1830s as a turning point in the evolution of Russian ways to see the national past: the convention between the artists and their audience changed, resulting in a substitution of document-based symbols for symbolic representations of the Russian past. This convention revision antiquated the early nineteenth century history paintings, and rendered the signs of the national employed in them incomprehensible.
Thebook considers ideological, political, religious, cultural, and everyday life aspects of "the Decembrists and France" theme. The French liberalism is show to have played a role in the shaping of Decembrists ideology. The book also contains comparative historical analysis of the Enlightenment and liberal ideas in France and in Russia. These subjects are considered against the general background of the cultural and political life in France and Russia in the late 18 and early 19 centuries; the book is based on a large number of sources, many of which have not been addressed by scholars before.
For specialists in history, philology, cultural studies, and for the general readership with and interest in the problems of cultural interaction.
The article is devoted to the influence of the Spanish Constitution of 1812 to the constitutionalism of the Russian Empire in the first quarter of the XIX. The author demonstrates the attention of different circles of Russian society to the national liberation movement of the Spanish people against France in 1808-1814 and to the Revolution of 1820-1823 in Spain as well as the Spanish events coverage in the Russian press. Effect of inspiring of the Fundamental law of 1812, enacted in Spain also in 1820 is noticed to be an example for the Russians to pursue for their Motherland. Particular attention is given to the constitutional ideas of members of secret societies, the future of the Decembrists, the motion of which is studied in the context of the "military revolution" in Europe. The researcher analyzes the influence of the Spanish constitution of 1812 on P.Pestel, author of "Russkaya Pravda" (project of the Southern secret society) and N. Muraviev who prepared the constitutional project, which we can study in three editions.
The article deals with the influence of Spanish Constitution in 1812 to constitutional ideas and projects of the Decembrists. It is represented in the historical context of the interest to foreign constitutional experience of Russian society in the first quarter of the XIX century. The author analyzes the impact of the Constitution of 1812 to the ‘Russkaya Pravda” (Russian Truth) written by P.Pestel, one of the leaders of the Southern secret society, which is detected in borrowing some ideas for the design of the constitutional and legal institutions. Particular attention is given to the constitutional draft of N.Muraviov, a member of the Northern secret society. All three editions of his projects were influenced by the Constitution of 1812. It is noticed in following: first, in the literal reproduction of the two articles of the Spanish law in the first and second editions, and secondly, the Spanish experience was borrowed in all three editions of the project to formalize various constitutional institutions (the status of the emperor, the right to vote and others).