Renaissance of dinitroazetidine: novel hybrid energetic boosters and oxidizers
Nitrogen-oxygen organic materials constitute an important family of multipurpose high-energy materials. However, the preparation of energetic boosters and oxidizers for various civil and space technologies remains a challenging task and such materials usually require special precautions and fine tunability of their functional properties. To find a balance between energy and safety while retaining the oxidizing ability of target energetic materials, novel hybrid organic compounds comprising furoxan and 3,3-dinitroazetidine scaffolds enriched with additional nitro groups were synthesized. The prepared 3-(3,3-dinitroazetidinoyl)-4-nitrofuroxan and 3,3-dinitro-1-(2,2,2-trinitroethyl)azetidine have high nitrogen-oxygen contents (75-79%), positive oxygen balance to CO (up to +10.3%) and good experimental densities (1.75-1.80 g cm−3). A combination of superior detonation performance (D = 8.3-8.5 km s−1 and P = 32-33 GPa) and moderate mechanical sensitivity enables the application potential of these energetic materials as booster explosives or oxidizers. Additionally, their functional properties remain essentially competitive with other oxygen-rich energetic materials (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, ammonium dinitramide, and tetranitratoethane). Hirshfeld surface calculations supported by energy framework plots were also performed to better understand the relationship between the molecular structure and stability/sensitivity. This work unveils novel directions in the construction of balanced energetic boosters and oxidizers for various applications. © 2022 The Royal Society of Chemistry.