Дифференциальная диагностика перфекционизма
Main conceptions about normal and pathological perfectionism in psychology are examined in the article. The results of elaboration and approbation of the original method “Differential Test of Perfectionism” are presented. The procedure of psychometric verification of scale indices is described.
The article presents the results of an English adaptation of the brief summary of a “Differential Perfectionism Inventory”. The psychometric testing of the adapted version of the measure called Brief Differential Perfectionism Inventory (BDPI) was enacted with the participation of 394 Malaysian students of the Foreign Department of I.M. Sechenov First MSMU (175 males, 219 females; M = 22.01, SD = 2.05). The results showed that BDPI is comprised of two scales similar to the original scale: 1) The Normal Perfectionism Scale assesses setting standards that are high but within reach; 2) The Pathological Perfectionism Scale assesses setting standards beyond reach and reason. The BDPI scales demonstrated a satisfactory internal validity (0.76 for the Normal Perfectionism Scale and 0.71 for the Pathological Perfectionism Scale) as well as a test-retest reliability (0.76 and 0.74, respectively). These scales observed anticipated associations with the measures of perfectionism and psychological well-being. Correlational analysis revealed that normal perfectionism correlates positively with flourishing, spiritual meaning, inspiration, gratitude, personal growth initiative, etc., while pathological perfectionism is associated with wisdom, search for meaning and existence. Overall, the study supported the BDPI as a psychometrically strong measure for express-diagnostics of perfectionism in an English-speaking population.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.