On direct speech and referential perspective in birchbark letters no. 5 from Tver’ and no. 286 from Novgorod
The article analyses within a pragmaphilological framework the communicative function and linguistic form of birchbark letters no. 5 from Tver’ (Tv5) and no. 286 (N286) from Novgorod. In the case of Tv5, we propose that the letter can best be understood if we assume two instances of direct speech without any markers of reportedness. With regard to N286, we will argue that what seems to be another case of direct speech lacking an introductory verbal tag should in fact be interpreted as an instance of the necessitive use of the imperative.
The article contains a critical assessment of two alternative interpretations of the birchbark letter № 724, proposed by the editors (V. L. Yanin and A. A. Zalizniak, 1995, 1996) and by P. V. Petrukhin (2009). According to the former, the document, in which the author describes the difficulties of collecting tribute in the north-eastern periphery of the Novgorod Land, was written in 1161-1167, this dating being based on the identification of Zakharia and Andrei mentioned in the text with Novgorod posadnik Zakharia (1161-1167) and Suzdal’ prince Andrey Bogolyubsky. However, as Petrukhin has convincingly shown, the editors’ treatment of the conflict doesn’t match to the political circumstances of this period as they are known from the chronicles. According to Petrukhin, the document was written half a century later and reflects a routine conflict between local administrators rather than political confrontation of Novgorod and Suzdal’. In the present paper I argue that the editors’ interpretation allows modification in the light of Petrukhin’s criticism which doesn’t presuppose re-dating of the document and retains valid identification of Zakharia and Andrey with historical figures of the 1160-s as well as the linguistic analysis proposed by Zalizniak.
The paper discusses the origin of pragmatic writing in Early Rus’ and its relationship to the Church Slavonic tradition. The emergence of birchbark literacy in Novgorod at about 1030 is treated as a by-product of the spread of church education under the reign of Jaroslav the Wise. The intermingling of lay and ecclesiastic affairs in the life of Lyudin konec of Novgorod is shown to have produded the breeding ground for the proliferation of birchbark writing in this part of the city.
The article demostrates the key importance of the newly dicovered birchbark document No 1072 for the reconstruction of the monetary system of medieval Novgorod.
The articlle publishes a birchbark letter #1 found in the course of 2015 excavations at Vologda Corodische. The document contains a pivate letter dated to the early fourteenth century; it is the oldest piece of writing originating from the Vologda region
The 12th volume of the series contains the texts of Novgorod birch-bark documents N 916-1062 unearthed in the course of the excavations of 2001-2014, as well as those found in Staraya Russa (N 37-45). Most of the published documents originate from the Troicky excavation site and are dated to the 12th century. The core of the volume is formed by the documents from the estate Ж, where the concentration of birch-bark letters is significantly higher than at any other medieval Novgorod estate explored so far. Of special importance are two deposits: financial and economic records of Yakim (second half of the 12th century) comprising the largest set of document written by one hand, and correspondence of Luke, Ivan and Snovid (mid 12th century) containing fine examples of Early Rus’ merchants’ correspondence. The texts of the documents are published with comprehensive linguistic and historical commentary. The second part of the book contains corrections to the readings and interpretations of the birch-bark documents published in the previous volumes of the series as well as updating of some of tables of extra-stratigraphic dating published in the 10th volume. The volume also contains a linguistic index and a list of conventional dates of the published documents.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.