Вспомогательные репродуктивные технологии в демографической политике: опыт Европы и перспективы России
The article considers assisted reproductive technologies (ART) as modern instruments of demographic policy in European countries with low fertility. A special consideration is given to programmes of 'in vitro fertilization' (IVF), which give childless couples an opportunity to have children and thus contribute to raising fertility rates. The cost of ART is significantly lower than that of other measures for raising fertility. Therefore, these technologies have good prospects as a constituent part of the demographic policy in Russia.
The analysis of current trends of fertility, family planning and family policy in Russia is presented in chapter. The special attention is paid to changes in age profile of fertility, changes in structure of firtility by birth order, current and expected cohort total fertility, to ethnic and regional differentials in fertlity and in abortion prevalence, regional specifics of demographic and family policy. The analysis was carried out on the basis of detailed and, often, unpublished statistical information from Rosstat, Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Labor, Social insurance fund, and also on representative for Russia sample surveys.
The second volume of the series "Demography. Sociology. Economics" is the result of work of the Centre of Social Demography and Economic Sociology of the Institute for Socio-Political Research with scientists from the Far East. The book consists of three sections. The first section deals with the general features of demographic processes and demographic policy in the Far East. The second section of the tendencies of migration processes and approaches to migration management. The third section presents articles on the problems of labor market and employment in the regions of the Far East. The book is recommended for students, postgraduate students, teachers, scientists and experts in the field of demography, migration and of the labor market, as well as all those interested in the Russian Far East.
Life expectancy at birth is an integral indicator of population health and socio-economical development in whole. An important problem in modern Russia is a long-term decrease of the life expectancy relative to the level of developed countries. This paper is devoted to econometric identification of steady factors influencing on the life expectancy in Russian regions.
The aging of Russian population leads to inefficiency of Pay-As-You-Go system, where the benefits come solely from government taxation of current workers' wages, and seems to be one of the problems of Russian Pension System. This is the overview of Russian demographic settings compared to other countries from US CIA ranking. Long-run instruments of influencing demography in Russia are stated below.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.