Баланс работы и семьи в жизненных стратегиях работающих москвичек с детьми
Results of empirical research of career opportunities in the sector of consulting are given on the example of the companies of "Big Four", and also career expectations and social and demographic portraits of young careerists of one of the largest consulting companies are analyzed in the article.
The international network on leave policies and research has been producing an annual review of leave policies and related research since 2005. The review covers Maternity, Paternity and Parental leaves; leave to care for sick children and other employment-related measures to support working parents; and early childhood education and care policy. As well as policies, it provides information on publications and research. The review is based on country notes from each participating country, prepared by members of the network and edited by one of the network’s coordinators. Each country note follows a standard format: details of different types of leave; the relationship between leave policy and early childhood education and care policy; recent policy developments; information on take-up of leave; recent publications and current research projects. The review also includes definitions of the main types of leave policies; and crosscountry comparisons. These comparative overviews cover: each main type of leave; total leave available; the relationship between leave and ECEC entitlements; policy changes and developments since the previous review; publications since the previous review; and ongoing research in participating countries The 2015 review includes three new countries: Malta, Mexico and Uruguay. Altogether, it covers 38 countries. In addition to the new countries, these are: Austria, Brazil, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States of America.
A woman’s body becomes a site of alarming attention and anxiety in modern Western culture. The preoccupation with the body seriously affects women’s psychological well-being and self-esteem, health and health related behaviours, relationships with others, and career. This article focuses onthe social influences on body perception and women’s individual lives. It reveals the complexity of a human body and women’s personal activity addressed to their bodies, and containsthe results of qualitative hermeneutical research of influential bodily sociocultural tendencies and women’s attitudes towards their bodies in modern Western culture.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.