Оценка монополизации российской экономики
Agriculture policy has, since the fall of the Soviet Union, arguably never been as important in Russian life as today. Having taken the path of import substitution, Russian took upon itself the very complex challenge of providing food products for the population with predominantly national production. And yet the agricultural sector is an extremely and notoriously inertial part of the economy. The successes in this sector have resulted from longstanding, gradual efforts. The fundamental problem of Russian agricultural policy is inconsistency and excessive dependence on high politics, as driven by geopolitical collisions and by transformations in Russia’s internal development model. Let us review the evolution of Russian agricultural policy from the radical-liberal project of the 1990s to the return to state patronage and active support of the agricultural sphere today.
Intertemporal equilibrium model with the finite number of agents-consumers is considered. Consumers exchange the only commodity with each other. They choose optimal consumption plan subject to budget constraint and liquidity constraint. Existence of efficient equilibrium is proven. The established fact of the uniqueness of equilibrium prices gives hope that equilibrium constraint could remove equilibrium indeterminacy problem of the stochastic Arrow-Debreu and derivative models.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.