Транскультурный подход к обучению английскому языку как международному
The article introduces conceptualization of a methodological category “transcultural approach” to teaching English as an International Language (EIL) in the framework of culture-based approaches to teaching foreign languages in Russia. Based on critical literature review, the article analyzes the key geopolitical prerequisites for the emergence of transcultural approach, mainly cultural and linguistic glocalization, which originated in response to the world’s universalization and standardization due to the process of globalization. In addition, the linguistic prerequisites are examined, encompassing the World Englishes Paradigm by B. Kachru and L. Smith, which rationalizes the English language diversification and its transition from the private ‘property’ of the inner concentric circle countries to the global ‘commodity’. What's more, scientific elaboration on the notions ‘translingualism’ and ‘transculturalism’ and their impact on the need to re-evaluate the modern methodology of teaching English, i.e. to shift from traditional teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to teaching English as an International Language (TEIL) is considered. Despite the exponentially growing academic interest in the issue, there is still lack of substantiation of transcultural approach around the globe and in Russia. To contribute, the authors explicate transcultural approach distinctive characteristics that, as opposed to intercultural approach, which focuses on cultural integration leading to gradual convergence and world’s universalization, promote cultural divergence and students’ ability to transit across several linguacultures without losing their own unique cultural identity. The article presents the mission of transcultural approach determined by multicultural, multiethnic, and multilingual nature of international communication, realized by means of the English language; defines transcultural communicative competence as a goal of teaching at universities , analyses its structure comprising cognitive (knowledge), operational (skills), and axiological components (attitudes and values); as well as substantiates principles, the teaching strategy and technologies of teaching English as an International Language from a transcultural approach perspective. The findings presented in the paper outline further research directed at modelling a university course book based on transcultural approach to teaching English as an International Language.