Whence differences in value priorities? Individual, cultural, or artifactual sources
To what extent do value priorities vary across countries and to what extent do individuals within countries share values? We address these questions using three sets of data that each measure values differently: the Schwartz Value Survey for student and teacher samples in 67 countries (N=41,968), the Portrait Values Questionnaire for representative samples from 19 European countries (N=42,359), and the World Value Survey for representative samples from 62 countries (N=84,887). Analyses reveal more consensus than disagreement on value priorities across countries, refuting strong claims that culture determines values. Values associated with autonomy, relatedness, and competence show a universal pattern of high importance and high consensus. Only conformity values show patterns suggesting they are good candidates for measuring culture as shared meaning systems. We rule out reference-group and response style effects as alternative explanations for the results and discuss their implications for value theory, cross-cultural research, and value-based intergroup conflict.