Много видел я на своем веку поразительных сих подвижников Борис Старцев. Хроники образовательной политики: 1991—2011. М.: Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2012 г. 207 с.
The book Khroniki obrazovatelnoi politiki: 1991—2011 [Chronicles of the Educational Policy; 1991—2011] by Boris Startsev is a chronicle of modernization of the Russian secondary and higher education system in the period between 1991 and 2011 from the economic point of view. The events are seen through the eyes of a journalist and presented as a sequence of decisions by decision-makers. The reform is described using the names of ministers and top-ranking officials, and only rarely does one come across the opinions and names of teachers. The value of the book is in the integrity of the story about the process that has been modified more than once.
This article analyses the interrelation between human resource policies and educational policies in the system of healthcare provision to solve the problem of the structural imbalance in the supply of physicians. International experience reveals a growing emphasis on policies which help maintain the optimal structure of medical workers, i.e. the structure that corresponds to the needs of the healthcare system and society as a whole. Such policies include new regulatory and planning mechanisms for medical schools, the regulation of admission plans and the specialization structure in postgraduate medical education, specific post-education employment practices, and measures to overcome the shortage of supply of some categories of physicians and their geographic misbalance. In Russia, the structural component of human resource policies and educational policies has clearly weakened. The current regulatory and planning methods tend to reproduce the accumulated structural imbalances. Regulatory measures to improve the quality of the training of physicians are still ineffective. No prospective planning exists. Postgraduate training is poorly oriented towards the specializations currently in short supply. Medical schools are interested in training physicians capable of paying for their education and the government does not have the instruments to manipulate the structure of the student body. Recent attempts to improve the situation have not resulted in any positive outcomes yet. The decision to accredit graduates for practicing in primary care without postgraduate training will most likely deteriorate the quality of healthcare. Based on international experience, the authors suggest new regulatory mechanisms.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading. It was first performed in 2000 and then repeated every three years. It is done with view to improving education policies and outcomes. The data has increasingly been used both to assess the impact of education quality on incomes and growth and for understanding what causes differences in achievement across nations.
1940-1980s were the time of reforms in school education in the USSR. This book is a collective monograph focused on the ideas which inspired these reforms, in particular: new collectivism, individual approach to each child, trade education in school, etc. The contributors also discuss the commonalities and differences with the previous school reforms (1900-1930s), as well as images of school in Russian cinema. The collection also includes articles on school reforms in Hungary, Yugoslavia, Sweden, and Western Germany.
The concluding chapter takes stock of the book’s core notion of high participation systems (HPS) of higher education, in the context of the eight country studies and seventeen HPS propositions. The propositions engender extensive, though not unanimous, support. Declining institutional diversity and more complex governance are broadly agreed, but Finland and Norway differ from the other cases in stratification and equity. The HPS theory and findings are compared and contrasted with Martin Trow’s seminal work. The book ends with a central and enduring tension in HPS. Higher education as self-formation empowers individual agency in HPS on a larger and more inclusive scale. Yet, in HPS those without higher education are more disadvantaged; the average graduate has less social and occupational distinction; and secular tendencies to intensive competition for elite education and institutional bifurcation lead to greater inequality in educational and social outcomes, unless Nordic-style values are sustained.
Bridging the gap between higher education research and policy making was always a challenge, but the recent calls for more evidence-based policies have opened a window of unprecedented opportunity for researchers to bring more contributions to shaping the future of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Encouraged by the success of the 2011 first edition, Romania and Armenia have organised a 2nd edition of the Future of Higher Education – Bologna Process Researchers’ Conference (FOHE-BPRC) in November 2014, with the support of the Italian Presidency of the European Union and as part of the official EHEA agenda. Reuniting over 170 researchers from more than 30 countries, the event was a forum to debate the trends and challenges faced by higher education today and look at the future of European cooperation in higher education. The research volumes offer unique insights regarding the state of affairs of European higher education and research, as well as forward-looking policy proposals. More than 50 articles focus on essential themes in higher education: Internationalization of higher education; Financing and governance; Excellence and the diversification of missions; Teaching, learning and student engagement; Equity and the social dimension of higher education; Education, research and innovation; Quality assurance, The impacts of the Bologna Process on the EHEA and beyond and Evidence-based policies in higher education.
This publication presents Russia results in PISA 2018. It also shows the dynamics of PISA scores in the 2000-s. The changes in different types of reading skills are presented as well as the proportion of functionally illiterate students. Besides the scores, the data that describes schools climate, including attitude to school, bullying, discipline in class, are analysed. Some issues related to the provision of schools with resources are being addressed.In addition, the social and territorial inequality of educational outcomes in Russia is described. In particular, PISA 2018 allows us to compare the results of the Moscow region and the Republic of Tatarstan with the average scores in the country. Based on the analysis, authots make basic hypothesis about possible changes in Russian education that can be associated with Russia results in PISA. At the end, the publication proposes some steps that could help to improve educational outcomes of Russian students. The publication will be interesting to a wide audience of specialists engaged in educational policy and practice, as well as to researchers of educational inequality and education quality factors.
This paper analyzes the role of education in economic growth with special focus on countries with high participation in tertiary education. The practical challenge that this conceptual paper is trying to address is that global economic growth is decreasing in the last decades – especially in developed countries.