Профессиональные сообщества за границами публичности
The article discusses the problem of expert professional communities’ which are closed to the public. Twenty-two in-depth focus interviews taken with key experts in science and technology, business and medicine from the city of Perm in the fall of 2007 served as empirical sources for the study. The article consistently examines problems of relationships with the authorities and the public and communication within groups (themes, intensity and forms). A hypothesis is advanced according to which the public space of present-day Russia is organized by the authorities, which propose both the agenda for discussion and the language for constructing public statements.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.