Medialität als Grundbegriff der gegenwärtigen Phänomenologie
Traditionally phenomenology was considered as the philosophical movement that pays no attention to the problem of medium understood as the material mediator of thinking process. Admittedly, this media-indifference of phenomenology results from its subjective-idealistic orientation. Acknowledging the truth of this retrospective interpretation the alternative look at the problem of relationship between phenomenology and media studies offered in this article is future-oriented and takes as its starting point the very idea of phenomenality considered as main theme of phenomenological researches. As opposed to plural and particular phenomena, holistic phenomenality allows us to think the object of phenomenological researches as a consistent field of primary appearance which embraces not only the objective structures of phenomenological experience, but also the subjective ones. In this sense primary phenomenality is the primordial medium of any appearance. The visual image (and its experience) is offered as the best model for explication of phenomenality understood in terms of mediality.
The image of BRICS as a single unit has not formed in Africa by now. There are still separate and very different images of five BRICS states in the African mass consciousness. The more actions in the sphere of cooperation with African countries BRICS as organization will undertake, the quicker its image will form there. The evidence from Tanzania confirm the aforesaid.
The BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) are “(re)emerging powers” that at present compete in Africa most actively with “traditional powers” (former colonial powers, the USA, some others), on the one hand, and, in fact, with each other, notwithstanding the establishment of the BRICS formal unity, on the other. In this contest for African spatiality and resources an important part is played by images of the respective countries in the Africans’ mass consciousness as a significant prerequisite for consolidation of their positions and implementation of their goals on the continent.
Hegel’s philosophy has witnessed periods of revival and oblivion, at times considered to be an unrivalled and all-embracing system of thought, but often renounced with no less ardour. This book renews the dialogue with Hegel by looking at his legacy as a source of insight and judgement that helps us rethink contemporary economics. This book focuses on a concept of institution which is equally important for Hegel's political philosophy and for economic theory to date.
The key contributions of this Hegelian perspective on economics lead us to the synthesis of traditional approaches and new ideas gained in economic experiments and advanced by neuroeconomists, sociologists and cognitive scientists. The proper account of contemporary 'civil society' involves comprehending it as a historically evolving totality of individual minds, ideas and intersubjective structures that are mutually dependent, tied by recognitive relations, and assert themselves as a whole in the ongoing performative movement of 'objective spitit'. The ethics of recognition is paired with the ethics of associations that supports moral principles and gives them true, concrete universality.
This unusual constellation of seemingly remote fields suggests that Hegel, read in a pragmatist mode, anticipated the new theories and philosophies of extended mind, social cognition and performativity. By providing a new conceptual apparatus and reformulating the theory of institutions in the light of this new synthesis, this book claims to give new meaning both to Hegel as interpreted from today, and to the social sciences. Seen from this perspective, such phenomena as cooperation in games, personal identity or justice in the version of Amartya Sen's 'realization-focused comparisons' are reinscribed into the logic of institutional theory. This 'Hegel' clearly goes beyond the limits of philosophical discussion and becomes a decisive reference for economists, sociologists, political scientists and other scholars who study the foundations and consequences of human sociality and try to explore and design the institutions necessary for a worthy common life.
This book, which contains articles both in German and English, analyses images of and reflections on Africa in Russia, Poland and Germany in the 20th century.
The point of the article is the idea that an activity, an image and a word are the means to spiritualize a body and to externalize spirit. Each o them is a heterogeneous entity: a kind of metaform where both internal and external forms appear. E.g. an activity being considered as an external form includes an image and a word. The same structure is peculiar to a word and an image. Because of such a structure an activity, an image and a word are as much corporeal as they are spiritual. A play of their external and internal forms is extended to interrelationship of the body, the soul and the spirit. It is argued that such a model of reasoning may be of use for psychotherapeutic practices.
Performativity in action: Michel Callon's economy of qualities as a paradigm for sociological analysis of markets An alternative research program has been emerging in economic sociology in last decade. It rejects the critique of homo economicus in favour of examining why economic agents progressively resemble this economic conception of man. The new approach relies on thesis of performativity of economics, according to which the distribution of economic knowledge and technology dramatically changes economic practice, thereby increasing the verisimilitude of economic theories. Calculativeness can be considered now as a key feature of the man and his technological environment. This paper demonstrates how performativity thesis combined with the theory of monopolistic competition can provide a paradigm for economicsociological research of markets, which would be able to take full account of increasing structuring impact of economic technologies on economic practices.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.