Территориальное общественное самоуправление как форма общественного участия
The article describes a population’s activity associated with an independentand on its own responsibility realization of its own local issue-related initiatives.Th is is characterized as a form of citizens’ participation at the local level,as a social institute and as a sphere of population’s interest realization. Also thearticle describes the involvement of the Russian people’s in this form of citizens’participation as in their daily self-organization and charity activities according totheir place of residence, and evaluates the charity resources of the housing selforganizationactivists.
On almost all geographical levels, symbolic management is increasingly introduced into processes of place management. Regional and local public authorities represent their developmental socioeconomic initiatives in an attractive way in order to obtain resources e.g. tourists, residents and capital. Along with this externally oriented symbolic management, оn the basis of empirical material which comprises Russian cases, this paper explores the capacity of internally oriented symbolic strategies to support place modernization and endogenous development, by involving multiple communities and reinforcing their sense of place.
The problems of the methodology of measuring the cohesion of local communities are considered. Presented method of qualitative evaluation of cohesion local (neighboring) communities allows us to calculate the integral indicator of cohesion, to make a "portrait" community cohesion at the individual indicators, and to identify the types of social cohesion within the community. Recommendations on the application of the methodology and statistical data processing are given. For scientists and specialists developing problems of social integration, methodology and methods of collecting and analyzing sociological data. It can be used in the educational process with students and postgraduates receiving education in the field of sociology and psychology.
The chapter is about of the life of local communities.
Photography as conversation (by field study in Sochi, 2010-2014)
The field study realized in Adler region of Sochi during 2010-2014 is the ground of the paper. The main method applied is photo documentary, primarily researchers have done photos, and Photo Voices have been applied, too. Besides, the process of photography appeared to be the way of interaction with local inhabitants involving them in a dialogue with us. The aim was to get their commentaries, to reveal shared by them meanings of landscape and some objects in it. Thus we conducted the conversation about photo in the process of taking pictures. Our respondents influenced on the interpretation of photo images. In some cases photos presented such objects and elements of environments which respondent considered to be (or prefer to do) hidden, invisible.
The authors discuss a number of questions: how photo images may be used to analyze social changes, transformation of social structure, institualization of social practices, adjustment of novelty or resistance to changes. We consider some cases, such as ‘fences’, ‘streets’ building structure’, and ‘resort services’.
Some working materials are available: http://soc.hse.ru/gsoc/olimpobjects/.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.