Проблема профессиональных деформаций личности в современных исследованиях
The article is devouted to the problem of negative concequences of the activity for personality, professional deformations. This area of psychological research is very relevante in new social conditions. In the same time this problem is weakly presented in science. We study the specific of different approaches, as well as problem of burn out. We represent the approach to professional deformations in a context of the problem of self-determination in social and professional sphere and methods of overcoming of uncertaity in professional development process. We study some parameters of professional deformations, concerning with distortion of value reference points and mechanisms of searches of adequat ways of individual development.
The paper reviews contemporary research of group helping behavior - help for some members of outgroup or outgroup as a whole. Various forms of selfish helping (help, contrary to stereotypes, defensive help) and factors of intensity of the helping behavior are analyzed. In conclusion, describes the limitations of existing studies
In the article the interrelation between the economic identity and the professional self -determination of a person is analyzed. The property self-categorization, representations about polarization of incomes between rich and poor people, and the level of material claims, are considered to be indicators of economic-psychological status, a component of economic identity. The features of valuable orientations of the person, motivation of professional self- determination, and also the characteristics of the purposes of professional work and their means of achievement are considered to be the elements of professional self-determination. The results of empirical research confirmed the connections between the subjective economic-psychological status and the features of professional self-determination. These connections were statistically confirmed.
Our research was focused on young people’s moral self-determination based on different levels of self-regulation. The author’s theoretical model and methodical approach to self-determination study is presented. Self-determination implies active individual self-development, search of ones own existential position and the choice of decisions in problematic situations. The self-regulation phenomenon appears in planning and programming life goal achievements, taking into account significant external and internal conditions, estimation of results and correcting ones’ own activity for subjective-acceptable result achievements, also it appears in the degrees of development and realization of self-organizing processes. The results have shown that young people with a medium level of self-regulation have a less positive moral position than people with high and low levels of self-regulation. For young men, the higher level of self-regulation corresponds to a more positive moral position in the case of separate conceptions of morality and moral strategies. But such regularity isn’t peculiar to young women.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.