Система постоянного найма в университете: модели и аргументы
In this article we review and discuss different explanations of the university tenure presented in the literature. For our analysis both the probation period and the lifelong employment guarantees are important. We analyze different types of models: for the first type of models the information structure is important, for the second type of models the scarcity of job vacancies explains the tenure phenomena.
This paper discusses the features of the Soviet higher education system that have been crucial to the formation of the current system and then focus on the main changes that it has endured in the past 20 years. We pay special attention to the current challenges in the sphere of higher education and the counter-measures taken by the government and the academic community.
Changes in the Russian system of higher education presented new challenges to universities in terms of their achievements and to professional scholars as well. Scholars forced to become much more active both in teaching and research. They have to publish more articles and research papers in prestigious foreign journals in English. They are induced to improve their skills or give way to those who are younger, have experience in leading educational and research institutions, or greater academic achievement. The paper analyzes the strategic documents of the leading Russian universities, annual reports on the implementation of development programs. Russian scholars mostly write in Russian, read and cited articles of Russian-language authors. There were 89.9 articles per 100 persons in journals indexed in the database of the Russian Science Citation Index, 4.1 articles per 100 persons in the Web of Science, 5.3 articles per 100 persons in Scopus in 2013. Leading universities are intended to increase by 5 the number of articles in the foreign bases by 2020. On the one hand organizational culture and the principles of academic management may offer opportunities for development, gaining new competences, participating in contests and research. On the other hand the current situation can impose restrictions and provoke a teacher on the informal practices.
Faculty are the main asset of a university and determine its success. The attitudes of faculty toward their institution play an especially important role in the academic profession. This study examines the specific antecedents of affective, normative and continuance commitment of faculty to their university. This study is an online survey of 317 faculty of Russian higher education institutions. The results of the regression analysis showed that being an undergraduate inbred (i.e. working at the university from which one graduated) predicted affective and normative commitment toward the university, while having a post at another higher education institution predicted only affective commitment. Faculty who work at several universities have lower levels of emotional attachment to the primary university.
This encyclopedia entry analyses the notion of a faculty with a special emphasis on the conceptual history of faculties of the soul between Aristotle and Ryle.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.