Система постоянного найма в университете: модели и аргументы
In this article we review and discuss different explanations of the university tenure presented in the literature. For our analysis both the probation period and the lifelong employment guarantees are important. We analyze different types of models: for the first type of models the information structure is important, for the second type of models the scarcity of job vacancies explains the tenure phenomena.
This paper discusses the features of the Soviet higher education system that have been crucial to the formation of the current system and then focus on the main changes that it has endured in the past 20 years. We pay special attention to the current challenges in the sphere of higher education and the counter-measures taken by the government and the academic community.
University faculty are frequently tasked with promoting academic honesty among students. However, there is little reliable evidence about whether faculty actions can prevent academic dishonesty. The purpose of this study is to examine whether more severe punishments from faculty can reduce academic dishonesty among students. We analyze nationally representative, longitudinal and matched data on engineering undergraduates and faculty from 33 universities in Russia, and document extremely high and increasing rates of dishonest academic attitudes among students, especially among the higher achieving students. In the first two years of study the proportion of students tolerant to academic dishonesty increases by 5 percentage points. We then show that despite the tide of increasing academic dishonesty among students, more severe punishments from faculty significantly and substantially improve student attitudes towards academic dishonesty. Taken together, the findings emphasize the importance of strengthening the role of faculty in promoting academic honesty among students.
In this interview with Grigoriy Konson, Professor Marina-Frolova Walker, Cam-bridge University, reflects on current issues in scholarship and higher education. One of them is the system of reporting on the activities of institutions and individual scholars (the Research Excellence Framework, or REF), which works largely through peer-review. In the UK, universities participate in a kind of competition for the state funding of their research; this happens roughly once in seven years. Every faculty or department (“unit of assessment”) submits their best research outputs for peer-review by a panel of assessors. The three main criteria are originality, significance and rigour. This system of assessment has had a substantial effect on the activities of the scholars: their productivity has risen, but certain priorities have emerged (for example, it is more “risky” to work on a single monograph for a long period, than to produce a series of peer-reviewed articles for prestigious journals). The mechanism of “double-weighting,” which can be applied to a monograph, alleviates this potential problem. In contrast to the practice in Russia, PhD defence is not a public occasion. The thesis is read by two examiners (one internal to the department/university and one external), both write their reports individually (they could be relatively short) and then discuss them with each other in advance of the viva voce examination of the PhD candidate. There could be a range of outcomes: straightforward pass without corrections; pass with minor corrections (to be completed within 3 months); pass with major corrections (6 months); “revise and resubmit” (12 months), which requires a second defence; and fail (the latter is almost never used in practice). The interview also focuses on the issues of morality and trust in UK scholarship and emerging trends in musicological research, offering an insight into the future of musicology as a discipline.
Changes in the Russian system of higher education presented new challenges to universities in terms of their achievements and to professional scholars as well. Scholars forced to become much more active both in teaching and research. They have to publish more articles and research papers in prestigious foreign journals in English. They are induced to improve their skills or give way to those who are younger, have experience in leading educational and research institutions, or greater academic achievement. The paper analyzes the strategic documents of the leading Russian universities, annual reports on the implementation of development programs. Russian scholars mostly write in Russian, read and cited articles of Russian-language authors. There were 89.9 articles per 100 persons in journals indexed in the database of the Russian Science Citation Index, 4.1 articles per 100 persons in the Web of Science, 5.3 articles per 100 persons in Scopus in 2013. Leading universities are intended to increase by 5 the number of articles in the foreign bases by 2020. On the one hand organizational culture and the principles of academic management may offer opportunities for development, gaining new competences, participating in contests and research. On the other hand the current situation can impose restrictions and provoke a teacher on the informal practices.
This encyclopedia entry analyses the notion of a faculty with a special emphasis on the conceptual history of faculties of the soul between Aristotle and Ryle.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.