Российский чиновник – задачи на сегодня
Relying on the results of the sociological poll of civil servants, the authors suggest a number of measures, aimed at enhancing the development of public service in Russia. In particular, mechanisms of ensuring compliance of the number and qualifying structure of civil servants with functions of executive authorities are considered. Measures of increasing competitiveness and objectivity of the selection of applicants to positions in civil service, the estimates of competence, based on the criteria of professionalism are discussed. The directions of updating and strengthening a practical orientation of the professional educational programs, formation of individual career trajectories are suggested. The pay system, social privileges and guarantees of civil servants are analyzed. Suggestions to improve the structure and mechanisms of formation of a compensatory package in line with modern performance pay systems are given.
The article analyzes Russian students’ perceptions of justice. Based on the data of a representative quantitative survey (N = 6055) as well as a qualitative research (51 focus groups in 12 regions of the Russian Federation), a conclusion about a paternalistic model of respondents' perceptions of justice is done. The state, according to their opinion, is the key actor that can ensure a fair social order. At the level of everyday speech practices youth's perceptions of justice exist in three dimensions: historical, domestic policy making and foreign policy making. The main dualism of the ideas of the studied group about justice is found in the contradiction between the assessments of these two processes of policy making. Russia's rigid and strong position on the international arena in narratives is characterized as fair while the domestic political situation is assessed as insufficiently fair.
The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive analysis of the American social policy for the Vietnam War veterans. This paper includes three parts: description of protest movements and the struggle for the recognition of the Vietnam War veterans status; studying the problems and consequences of war syndrome; expertise of American legislation within the context of the Vietnam veterans social protection. The recognition of the PTSD as the illness allowed using rehabilitation programs for more effective integrating former combatants into a peaceful social environment. Measures of the combatants social support in the United States based on the implementation programs of preferential maintenance of educational needs, group life insurance, medical rehabilitation, not only owing of injuries, but also in connection with the effects of herbicides. In the USA active work is conducted on carrying out of such programs as assistance in finding co-soldiers, housing for homeless veterans of the Vietnam War, rehabilitation after returning from correctional institutions, the use of round-the-clock telephone hotline.
The choice between safe and risky assets represents behavior towards risk: more risk‐averse investors buy more safe assets. We develop and test a general model that applies this intuition to the time allocation between risky effort and risk‐free leisure under linear incentives. When risk increases with effort, risk‐averse agents choose less effort, but when risk is independent of effort, effort choice is unaffected by risk preferences. In many incentive contracts, income risk is multiplicative with, rather than additive to effort, sales commissions being one example. In such cases, lower effort by the risk‐averse is a hitherto undocumented behavior towards risk.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.