Типы социального капитала россиян и их детерминанты
Despite the growing interest in the study of social capital in Russia and abroad, approaches to its measurement are still cause a controversial.The task of constructing the generalized indicators that measure the volume of the social capital in general or its different types looks the most difficult. At the same time, it is necessary to be able to measure it correctly in order to estimate the return on social capital. The aim of this research is to develop a methodology for measurement of various types of the social capital of an individual, as well as its application to analyze the differentiation of the social capital of Russians and of its factors. We use data of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of Higher School of Economics (RLMS HSE) in 2016 since a block of questions about the inclusion of an individual in social networks was added to the questionnaire of this wave. Factor analysis identified five latent variables corresponding to different types of social capital: 1) capacity of network online, 2) an opportunity to rely on the help from outside, 3) density of communication with friends, 4) involvement in church activity and 5) density of communication with the relatives living separately. It is possible to attributed the third and fifth types to "bonding" social capital, and the first one — to "bridging". The second type represents the "potential" social capital. The fourth type can be attributed to the " binding" social capital. The resulting variables were used as dependent variables in regression models. The analysis showed that gender, age, education, place of residence and birth, marital status, presence of children, religiosity and confession have significant effect in models, the strength and direction of which differ for different types of the social capital. . Using the cluster analysis method, a typology of social capital was built, covering four classes of respondents: 1) low level of all types of the social capital; 2) high level of bridging and the moderate level of the bonding social capital; 3) high level of the binding social capital; 4) high level of the bonding and bridging social capital.