Распространенность анемии и ее ассоциации с другими гериатрическими синдромами у лиц старше 65 лет: данные российского эпидемиологического исследования ЭВКАЛИПТ
Background. A low hemoglobin level in older adults impairs cognitive ability and functional status and associates with risk of falls and fractures, sarcopenia, malnutrition, depression, frailty, and decreased autonomy. Epidemiological data on the anemia prevalence in the geriatric population in our country is not available.
Aim. To assess the prevalence of anemia and analyze its associations with geriatric syndromes (GS) in subjects aged ≥65 years.
Materials and methods. 4308 subjects (30% of men) aged 65–107 years, living in 11 regions of the Russian Federation, were examined and divided into age groups (65–74 years, 75–84 years and ≥85 years). All the participants underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment and determined hemoglobin level.
Results. The anemia prevalence in older adults was 23.9%. It has been shown that with an increase in age per 1 year, the risk of anemia detection increases by 4%. The incidence of anemia was higher in males than females (28.1% versus 22.1%; p<0.001). In most cases, anemia was mild. The results of a comprehensive geriatric assessment show that patients with anemia had lower hand grip force, Barthel Index, the sum of points on Lawton instrumental activities of daily living scale, Mini Nutritional Assessment scale, the Mini-Cog test and higher – the sum of points on the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and the Age Is No Barrier scale. Patients with anemia were more likely to use hearing aids, absorbent underwear, and assistive devices during movement. Patients with anemia had a higher incidence of all GS, except for orthostatic hypotension and chronic pain syndrome. The presence of GS is associated with an increased risk of anemia by 1.3–3.4 times. Conclusion. EVKALIPT study obtained domestic data on the prevalence of anemia in older patients and examined its associations with other GS.