«Национализация» обобществленной дисциплины: товарищеские суды в Советской России в 1917-1922 гг.
The article deals with pre- and early Soviet comrades’ courts and their judicial practices. The author studies the transformation of the disciplinary mode implemented in such courts in 1917-1922. Violations of administrative discipline on factories and enterprises during the war and the Revolution led to the creation of an alternative, “comradely,” disciplinary mode, which originated from the low-level workers’ protest culture and proletarian emancipation. The author examines the flexible practices of comradely discipline, based on cooperation between the various production actors in the struggle for survival and postwar restoration of industry. This newly born “comradely” justice was brought under control by a 1919 decree, integrated into the system of factory management, and eventually subjected to special regulations. The article demonstrates how “comradely” justice functioned after these new conditions were imposed from above and describes which ‘non-comradely’ practices of exclusion emerged in courts during that period. The author concludes that production discipline was “nationalized” when the new Soviet bureaucratic regime strengthened after the end of the Civil War, when pro-Bolshevik factory managers seized control of production discipline and comradely disciplinary courts were abolished.