«Социально-чуждые элементы» в советской системе труда по материалам Архангельска (1929–1939)
The article presents the process of development of the system of social discrimination against the different social groups whose representatives were called in official Soviet documents "socially alien". Formation of such social environment is a characteristic of the totalitarian regime of the Soviet type. This was an important part of the strategy of Stalin's state building. In the article, this process is demonstrated by the example of a Soviet port city, Arkhangelsk. Despite the system of state terror, persons of "alien social origin" were included in the process of social transformation, so they also participated in formation of the social history of the USSR, like all other categories, of the Soviet population. The Soviet ideological system assumed that the social environment of "socially alien" would include different categories of the soviet population: former nobles, prerevolutionary intellectuals, former officials of the tsarist government, peasants, exiled specialists, as well as the persons who used the wage labor before the revolution. At the same time, the Soviet distribution system expected that all individuals in the Soviet society would be involved in the process of Soviet industrial production. Therefore, they needed to integrate into the Soviet social structure. All these conditions implied the creation of a new, Soviet biography for citizens of the Soviet state. The policy of social discrimination created the conditions for widespread use of forced labor, as well as labor of people from social discriminated groups, by the state with minimum labor costs. Such "socially alien elements", with their good pre-revolutionary education, contributed greatly to creation of the Soviet industry, science, education, healthcare, and the infrastructure of the USSR. They became the first victims of repression during the periods of "purges" of the Soviet institutions and enterprises. The article is based on previously unpublished and uncited historical sources - archival documents, local periodicals, memoirs.