The article presents the process of development of the system of social discrimination against the different social groups whose representatives were called in official Soviet documents "socially alien". Formation of such social environment is a characteristic of the totalitarian regime of the Soviet type. This was an important part of the strategy of Stalin's state building. In the article, this process is demonstrated by the example of a Soviet port city, Arkhangelsk. Despite the system of state terror, persons of "alien social origin" were included in the process of social transformation, so they also participated in formation of the social history of the USSR, like all other categories, of the Soviet population. The Soviet ideological system assumed that the social environment of "socially alien" would include different categories of the soviet population: former nobles, prerevolutionary intellectuals, former officials of the tsarist government, peasants, exiled specialists, as well as the persons who used the wage labor before the revolution. At the same time, the Soviet distribution system expected that all individuals in the Soviet society would be involved in the process of Soviet industrial production. Therefore, they needed to integrate into the Soviet social structure. All these conditions implied the creation of a new, Soviet biography for citizens of the Soviet state. The policy of social discrimination created the conditions for widespread use of forced labor, as well as labor of people from social discriminated groups, by the state with minimum labor costs. Such "socially alien elements", with their good pre-revolutionary education, contributed greatly to creation of the Soviet industry, science, education, healthcare, and the infrastructure of the USSR. They became the first victims of repression during the periods of "purges" of the Soviet institutions and enterprises. The article is based on previously unpublished and uncited historical sources - archival documents, local periodicals, memoirs.
Yu.A. Petrov – the scientist with a world name and big scientific authority, the author more than 200 articles and monographs. He directed several very significant scientific projects, acted as the editor-in-chief and the organizer of preparation of a number of encyclopedias, collective monographs and collections of articles. Through all creativity of Yu.A. Petrov there passed the "financial" subject, history of the "Moscow" banks of the second half of the 19th century Besides, under its edition and with its participation monumental works on history of the State bank of Russia were published. An important subject of works of Petrov – history of the Russian businessmen. He pays much attention in the creativity to relationship of businessmen and the authoriry.
The author synthesizes the data indicating large (numerous) corps of professional warriors in service of the rulers of Rus' in the 10-11th centuries. Following the Czech mediaevalist František Graus the author designates the institution as the “large retinue” (Czech velkodružina, German “Staatsgefolge”). The rulers maintained these corps mainly by payments in cash extracting money as a tribute from subjugated people. In Rus' the corps were called by the words otroki and grid'. They numbered up to several thousands soldiers. The model of the “large retinue” calls for a re-examination of the concept of družina which is very popular in the Russian historiography. The concept should be treated in a more subtle and differentiated way.
In article on the basis of a wide range of sources, the reconstruction of the status of the state budget of the Moscow tsardom at the end of the reign of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov. The author analyzes the main sources of replenishment of the state Treasury. Financial records of Central government departments suggests that during this period the annual flow of money into the Treasury did not exceed 1 million rubles. This amount is enough to supply the basic needs of the state, but it was not enough in terms of wars or tensions in international relations.
The supply crisis in the USSR and Russia in the late 1980s and early 1990s was the result of the Soviet planned economy’s development as a whole and the failure of M.S. Gorbachev's economic reforms in particular. For several years before the liberalization of prices in January 1992, the Soviet population had various options for grappling with supply deficits. People could turn to the rationing system and count on repression of speculators. At the same time, there were limited economic reforms toward a market economy. The failure of both government controls and reform had a huge impact on popular attitudes about the economy. The discrediting of the planned economy among Soviet people was an important factor in the transition to a market system. This article, based on published and archival materials, asks several questions about how these attitudes formed. How did the supply crisis emerge and in what areas? How did authorities and the population react to supply deficits? How did supply problems contribute to the transition of Russia to a market economy? And how did Russian people respond to the liberalization of prices in early 1992?