Особенности интенсивного родительства в высокоресурсных многодетных семьях
Current views about parenting involves the use of expert knowledge in the field of education and upbringing. The available variety of information and opportunities in this area requires parents to engage actively not only at the stage of choosing an educational trajectory for their children, but also in the process of their implementation. Large families with a fairly high income and education set a high educational level for their children, embarking on the path of modern intensive parenting, they use their own resources to achieve results. However, it is obvious that large families, taking into account the number of children and the accumulated experience of parents, have some features in this area. Thus, the work shows that parenting experience in such families allows a more rational approach to the choice of activities and their number, while carefully selecting educational institutions for their children, often depending on the abilities and needs of each child, creating individual educational trajectories. It is also noted that an important component of the educational process is the formation of an intra-family educational environment, which in large families has the ability to self-regulate and recreate. The chosen strategy of intensive parenting, which involves a significant amount of investment in the educational and upbringing process of children, requires focusing resources on children, including through the underutilization of the human capital of parents in the labor market (usually mothers). However, this strategy is considered as the most rational by parents.
It is for the first time when the phenomenon of the political class is being investigated in the Russian political science literature. In this edition, the political class is viewed as a community of persons professionally involved in the sphere of politics. Political elites, administrative and political bureaucracy, deputy corps, party functionaries, analyst center staff, expert community, political consultants, political journalists are regarded as important segments of the political class. The study of political participation of corporate business is also paid attention to. An important advantage is the combination of theoretical, methodological and applied aspects of the research, as well as a comparative perspective: the features of the formation of a political class in Ukraine and other countries of Central and Eastern Europe are considered.
This paper is focused on the problem of aggregate return to education. We consider this factor as an indicator of the professional knowledge capitalization that can be used as a proxy for human capital stock in extended Cobb-Douglas type equation for modeling the economic growth. Identification of the indicator is based on time-series data on countries and regional economies. To divide the objects into groups with respect to the aggregate return to education, we employ the fuzzy classification methodology instead of the traditional clustering procedure. This approach provides more relevant dividing the whole sample into three homogeneous groups. The first group includes the economies with low level of innovation development. These economies have close to zero or negative rate of return to education. The second group is most numerous. It mostly consists of developed economies with moderate aggregate rate of return to education. The third group includes objects with high return to education. It turned out that they are predominantly emerging economies developing on the base of new technologies. Such a typology provides the opportunities to make some suggestions concerning the relation between innovation development and quality of human capital stock. In particular, high rate of return to education in emerging economies we explain by the excess demand on high-qualified staff on the labor market that cannot be fully satisfied by existing educational system in the economies with higher level of innovation potential. Conversely, in developed economies, educational system meets the demand of the labor market, so the aggregate return to education is not so high. So it is necessary to be more specific about the structure of educational system for preparing high qualified staff for the most promising directions of innovation development. Comprehensive research of the considered problem at the regional level requires more elaborated data sources.
The purpose of this paper is to focus on one of the major emerging Asian economies – India – to examine the role of human capital in asset prices.
The article discusses different approaches to the “human capital” interpretation. The interconnection between “human capital” and “career” is specified. Profound analyses and interpretation of empiric material is proposed. Taking into account the interpretation there is a conclusion that studying in specialized classes and a “knowledge aspect” of the human capital with high school students aren’t directly connected: both students of the non-major and specialized classes don’t really think seriously about building their career in future. The human capital being figured out through the USE credits doesn’t depend on a students’ aspiration to build either vertical or a horizontal career.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the relationship between individual’s power status and economic status, his/her belonging to a professional group and educational level. The study describes a method of construction of a scale to measure the power status of the working population in modern Russia and provides the results of its implementation. The study reveals that the power status of most of Russians has zero value; and despite the fact that in modern Russian society representatives of the first occupational group according to the ISCO08 classification (leaders) have the highest scores on the power status scale, representatives of other occupational groups also possess this status. Besides, the power status determines individual’s economic position, and this relationship is dependent on individual’s professional skills and can be different across different occupational groups. The empirical basis of the study is the data of the 24th of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) conducted in late 2015.
The present paper is aimed at considering the evolution of human capital theory. Drawing on the wide range of classical and recent studies, the author shows the link between changes in economies of industrially developed countries and the development of the human capital theory revealed in the expanded list of indicators measuring human capital. The author proposes a periodization of the human capital theory suggesting 5 phases: (1) the pre-industrial phase (up to the seventeenth century); (2) the phase of mass education (the nineteenth through the rst half of the twentieth century); (3) the late industrial period (1960s–1970s, the period when the core of the human capital theory was established); (4) the post-industrial period I (1980s–2000s); and (5) the post-industrial stage II or contemporary period (2000s–2010s). The study reassesses narrow interpretations, which still widely exist among applied economists. Based on the findings of the human development studies, the author argues for a broader list of indicators of human capital, and, specifically, considers human capital through the lens of national development; moreover, this coincides with the core of the given theory. It is shown that the traditional interpretation of human capital, known as years of schooling and training, does not represent the current situation in the economy, and can be extremely harmful to society if it is adopted as the basis of public policy oriented to the formation and growth of society. The present study can be useful to both economists and sociologists focusing on the indicators of human capital and its contribution to the socioeconomic development of a modern society.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.