Факторы риска боли в нижней части спины у представителей рабочих профессий: систематический обзор
Lower back pain is a common clinical problem that causes disability. Members of the working professions are particularly at risk of developing this syndrome due to the physical nature of the work. At the same time, the existing systematic reviews on the risk factors for lower back pain, as a rule, do not pay enough attention to working professions.
The aim of the study is to generalize and systematize the results of scientific research on the physical and psychosocial risk factors for lower back pain for representatives of working professions.
A systematic review of published scientific research that is indexed in the Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. The authors selected 14 studies published in leading scientific journals, the purpose of which was to assess the relationship between occupational risk factors and the presence of lower back pain among representatives of working professions. The research results are systematized according to the classification of physical and psychosocial risk factors.
The main physical risk factor for lower back pain is lifting and lowering heavy objects without the help of specialized equipment. There is also evidence that frequent body twists and turns, as well as the monotonous nature of the work, are associated with a higher risk of having lower back pain. The most important psychosocial risk factors for lower back pain are working night shifts and high levels of workplace stress.
Developmental risk refers to conditions, characteristics, experiences, or situations with potentially deleterious effects that lead to outcomes later in life that do not meet societal expectations. While risk is typically framed as the statistical probability of a problematic outcome in relation to the general population, the converse notion of well-being is considered in relation to the level of functioning at a given developmental stage. The contributors to this volume provide insight into developmental well-being by examining the ways that culture and context affect outcomes associated with various types of risk, such as those related to oppression, academic performance, family background, life history, physical health, and psychiatric conditions. Even though certain outcomes may seem inevitable in cases involving harmful environments, diseases, and disorders, they are virtually all influenced by complex interactions among individuals, their families, communities, and societies.
The paper uses the data of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Study to analyze the change in the state of health of the Russian population in the post-Soviet period. Age is regarded as a factor with a potential to influence incidence of chronic disease, disability and self-preservation behavior. The authors stress the importance of such factors of health deterioration as smoking and alcohol consumption.
The article explores the procedural aspect of constructing structural and logical typologies with the aim of creating the innovation index - workers attitudes guiding innovation and innovation -related behavior at workplace.
The article investigates the features of corruption during the Stalinist era 1946 – 1953. The author describes the types of corruption: bribery, the distribution of food products through the lists, creation of interaction networks between party officials, the assignment of state property, the exploitation of subordinates’ labor for private purposes, the use of insider information. Corruption of upper party officials coexisted with difficult living conditions of ordinary workers.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management