The article characterizes specific features of negative impact of production factors in cold climatic conditions and key aspects of labor hygiene of workers of various specialities in the Arctic
In modern conditions, individualization and optimization of training and additional professional education of a wide range of specialists are increasing in order to strengthen the “personnel base” and solve complex internal and external tasks. Individualized training involves: 1) selecting people according to the criteria of personal predisposition to this type of professional activity; 2) building an adequate system of external training influence within the framework of specialized training and training of personnel. Occupational health and medicine as disciplines and practical areas are faced with the task of using labor as a factor of health and self-development of a person, increasing his vitality, adaptability and professional longevity. The purpose of the study is to identify individual typological profiles, considering professional activity and age, for improving professional selection, development and support of various professions ‘ specializations.
The sample included 389 people (average age–29.5±8.5 years), including 169 participants of the professional community “Institute for development of leaders” and 220 people-extreme specialists. Respondents belonged to the following professional profiles: administrative and managerial; information technology; research and security. The following methodological complex is used: o. SSS; o. TIPI; o. MMPI; o. Grasmika; o. BIS/BAS; o. EPQ; subjective scale for evaluating one’s own entrepreneurial skills.
It was revealed that the combination of a high level of activation system aimed at obtaining additional new stimulation, risk propensity and low emotional stability was characteristic for persons of administrative and managerial profile. Individual and typological characteristics of the security profile were similar to the previous group, except for a lower educational level and pronounced egocentrism. Persons with an information and analytical profile of professional activity were characterized by a low level of activation system and emotional instability. They were prone to risk. Individuals of the research profile were characterized by low self-control, emotional instability when focusing on subjective criteria.
The greatest information content of psychological variables was revealed for the age group from 16 to 21 years. Checking the predictive value of discriminant models, where the target variables were professional activity profiles, revealed the high quality of the model only when the subjects were assigned to the group of the security profile.
The information content of diagnostics of individual typological characteristics for solving problems of predicting behavioral response and professional selection is confirmed. The characteristics of specialists in various professional profiles have predictive value in relation to the risk of disadaptation and decompensation when changing their employment status.
The relevance of the research is determined by the tasks set in The national project "Demography" (the Federal project "Older generation"), and consists in the need to take into account the functional and psychophysiological characteristics of older workers in the system of measures to preserve their health and performance in connection with the upcoming increase in the retirement age for the majority of the working population. It was found that all the medians of QOL components in the examined women were above 50 points, i.e. they exceeded the General population norm. A comparison of the PCS value in HG 55-59 years and 60-64 years showed differences in the level of statistical trend (0.05>p≤0.1). When comparing MCS, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The study of the SOT PBC revealed that women 60-64 years of age had a slight decrease in the quality of the balance function in functional samples 1 (p=0.008) and 2 (p=0.009), but the quality of the balance function in sample 6 (p=0.005) was higher than in women 55-59 years of age, which allows us to consider this indicator as a predictor that has a positive impact on the continuation of employment over 59 years of age. thus, the physical and psychological components of QOL in working women 55-64 years old exceed the General population norm. However, after 59 years, there is a decrease in the physical component of QOL and there is no decrease in the psychological component of QOL, which suggests that the psychological health of women 60 years and older becomes the determining factor in predicting retirement employment. After 59 years of age, working women experience a decrease in the quality of the balance function in functional samples 1 and 2, indicating the beginning of age-related changes in the PBC, which justifies the need to develop and implement physical fitness programs aimed at maintaining postural balance in 60-year-old women.
Lower back pain is a common clinical problem that causes disability. Members of the working professions are particularly at risk of developing this syndrome due to the physical nature of the work. At the same time, the existing systematic reviews on the risk factors for lower back pain, as a rule, do not pay enough attention to working professions.
The aim of the study is to generalize and systematize the results of scientific research on the physical and psychosocial risk factors for lower back pain for representatives of working professions.
A systematic review of published scientific research that is indexed in the Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. The authors selected 14 studies published in leading scientific journals, the purpose of which was to assess the relationship between occupational risk factors and the presence of lower back pain among representatives of working professions. The research results are systematized according to the classification of physical and psychosocial risk factors.
The main physical risk factor for lower back pain is lifting and lowering heavy objects without the help of specialized equipment. There is also evidence that frequent body twists and turns, as well as the monotonous nature of the work, are associated with a higher risk of having lower back pain. The most important psychosocial risk factors for lower back pain are working night shifts and high levels of workplace stress.