Zooarchaeology of Tver Kremlin (12-18th centuries, Tver, Russia)
The paper is focused on the comparative zooarchaeological analysis of one of the Russian medieval strongholds. Animal bones originating from the sediments of the Tver stronghold (Tver Kremlin), accumulated over the period of its existence (12-18th centuries), are analyzed. The composition and nature of the bones of animals from Tver Kremlin correspond in general to those from strongholds of other medieval cities of Russia's forest zone. The basic set of bones and characteristics of animals from the Tver Kremlin are similar to bones and animals from medieval Tver town. At the same time, some features characterize the Tver Kremlin as a status place. The paper provides the first chronological breakdown of the substantial zooarchaeological assemblages from the excavations at Tver
The aim of the communication is to report and investigate the discovery of the Steppe marmot lower jaw in the layers the first centuries AD in the ancient Greek city Panticapaeum. This is the first record of the marmot remains from the easternmost part of the Crimean Peninsula (Kerch Peninsula). Although the animal could have been delivered to the city from the northern shores of Aral and Black Seas due to the valuable meat and fat, there is still a high possibility of marmot inhabiting this part of the Peninsula at the turn of our era
Bird bones from Novgorod and sites in its immediate hinterland
This is the third book in a series on Medieval Novgorod and its surroundings and deals with a substantial body of animal bones that have been recovered over the last decade. The zooarchaeological evidence is discussed by the editor and a number of English and Russian specialists who dug the site, looking at domestic exploitation of animals, diet, animal husbandry, and butchery practices. Detailed data sets are provided to enable the reader to make comparisons with their own research, but the book is also suitable for those with a more general interest in Medieval Russian archaeology.
In 1699-1714 the state financed extensive stone construction, which was conducted by numerous masters from Moscow, Yaroslavl, Solikamsk, Tobolsk etc. in more than a dozen Siberian towns. In Verkhoturie, Dalmatov monastery, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Yenisseisk, Irkutsk and Nerchinsk Monastery we can see extant some kremlins, market centers, office buildings and churches erected in those years. Their architecture represents a fine example of the Naryshkin style of the capital. In spite of certain archaic features, belonging to the time before Peter I's epoch, they look original and sometimes unique, taking into account their complex composition (cross-oriented five-domed top over an octagonal base) or elaborate decor (tile compositions in form of duns). After analyzing these constructions within the general Russian context, on may come to the conclusion that we are dealing with the most advanced architectural approaches of the time that existed outside of Moscow and its environs. The experience of these works in many ways prepared and detremined the success of the grandest construction projecti in 18-th century Europe, which took place somewhat later - creation of St. Petersburgh as teh nes Russian capital.
Fish bones from Novgorod, sites in its immediate hinterland and Minino
The study concerns the ways to reconstruct the intellectual biography of V.I. Kolosov. The need of study of his scientific heritage is shown.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Papers about natural protection territories
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction