Genre Studies in Russian Literary Research: Achievements and Challenges
Genre has been one of the key categories for Russian literary studies
ever since the late nineteenth century, creating a long tradition of artistic,
critical and scientific interpretation. The present paper aims to outline major
findings of Russian scholars in the field of genre studies and to account for
current pitfalls, suggesting a solution. Russian scholars have contributed
noticeably to both constructing the theory of genre in general and establishing
the laws and genesis of many separate genres. Historical poetics, the Russian
Formalists, Bakhtin’s school and structuralism worked out the principles
of generic evolution and explained the nature of the genre category. Still,
currently Russian genology faces a number of challenges, among which is the
inability to work out a universal approach to genre nomination and attribution,
which causes inconsistent and unverified results. W hen it comes to describing
new genres, most troubling is the choice of deductive method in genre analysis
and a narrow specialist approach to each genre leading to inconclusive or
biased results. The paper suggests that these challenges can be overcome by
turning to the heritage of the classical Russian literary science and taking
advantage of comparative and inductive methods proponed by it.
The article concerns the novels by Norman Mailer written in 1980-2000. It considers the main themes and problems of the works studied. Social and cultural context of the books is distinguished as one of the most significant in Mailer's controversial poetics. The writer intended both to follow and to transform traditions of literature of realism and postmodernism.
The paper considers the structure of discourse referred to as text and a unit of the highest level of language. According to the idea that language and thought are inseparable in their interaction, we propose describing the syntactic matrix of discourse in terms of the communicative structure of sentences as its constituent parts.
The study is dedicated to the corpus of texts of the XV-XVII centuries – the socalled Obihodniki (Ordinaries), books of ordinaries, charters, dininig ordinaries, and other works that organize the life of a Russian monastery. The variety of topics of these works (from statutory guidelines governing services and the prayer rules of the monastery, to recommendations for the management and accounting of monastic property), the purpose and application of these texts make these monuments a valuable source for studying such fields as the history of Russian literary language, historical stylistics of the Russian language, historical lexicology and historical morphology of the Russian language.
Recently there has been a significant amount of research in the fields of discourse and genre. However, a more complete description of the genre peculiarities of political discourse is needed, which is why in this article one more genre of political discourse is singled out – the genre of president’s victory speech.
The functional description of inaugural addresses made by Sheygal E.I. serves as a basis of the description in question. The comparative analysis of two genres – the inaugural address and the victory speech – is carried out. It has turned out that both genres are similar in the following functions: integrative, inspirative and performative. In addition, the list of the shared functions can be extended by an interdiscursive function, which consists in implicit and explicit referring to predecessors’ discourses and in appealing to common knowledge shared by the author and the audience.
Nevertheless, a number of differences between two genres in question can be seen. For example, following the Sheygal’s ideas, inaugural addresses also fulfill a declarative function as they contain a considerable amount of didactic information. In contrast, victory speeches are characterized by a more significant degree of expressivity, which gives decisive influence on stylistic characteristic of words. That is why one can single out the expressive function of victory speeches.
The overview on the functions of victory speeches and inaugural addresses is supported by examples taken from Barack Obama’s discourse.
The formulas of fragrances in the Persian classic literature and their semantic composition ("friend's scent", "Yusuf's scent" and "Uvays' scent ") -"terms" or "devices" of poets - are included in the lexical composition of the Persian language, they were often distinguished in the late medieval dictionaries in special sections. Examples of their use are considered in the article.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.