Дивергенция генетических характеристик у антропологически родственных популяций при разных типах хозяйствования
The study aims to compare the adaptive genetic complexes in the related populations of eastern (Permian) Finns, which have mastered different variants of the natural resource management.
Materials and methods. DNA analysis conducted on samples from 127 ethnic Komi-Permyaks and 134 Izma Komi (Izems). APOE, LCT, UCP1, VDR BsmI and Fok1 genes were typed. The information on traditional food composition and the sources of food products was obtained using ethnographic literature.
Results and discussion. The APOE*ε4 allele frequency is higher in Izems (0.217) than in Komi-Permyaks (0.144; p.0.018). That is consistent with the dietary traditions of the groups. The everyday protein-lipid diet of the Izem reindeer herders was similar to that of the northern hunters. The “thrifty” ε4 apolipoprotein facilitates the slow absorption of cholesterol, which allowed the Izems to better digest lipids, the primal nutrient in the high latitudes.
The lower CC*LCT (0,420) and higher T*Fok1 VDR (0,528) and CT*Fok1 VDR (0,549) genotype prevalence in Komi-Permyaks partly countervail their unfavorable to bone homeorhesis environmental conditions. The corresponding frequencies in the Izems sample are 0.625, 0.400, 0.288; all the between-group differences are significant (p<0.05).
The rations of the Izems supplied more vitamin D. The pressure of selection in favor of these alleles and genotypes was not so intense, and their frequencies in the gene pool of the Izems people have remained significantly lower than that of the Komi-Permyaks.
The prevalence of A*UCP1-3826 allele is higher in the Izems study group than among the Komi-Permyaks (0.812 vs 0.730; p=0.000). That is in accord with the geographical distribution pattern of the feature.
Conclusion. The adoption of different variants of natural economies is being reflected in the gene pools of the anthropologically proximal populations.