Reception of the Greek Story of Melchizedek in Syriac Christian Tradition
This article focuses on the history of reception of the Story of Melchizedek, an original Greek composition from Late Antiquity, among Syriac-speaking Christians during the Middle Ages. For the first time the original Syriac text, English translation and discussion of three different witnesses to this apocryphal work in Syriac is provided, namely (1) the abbreviated translation of the Story incorporated into Catena Severi (ninth century), (2) the Pseudo-Athanasian excerpt found in ms. Vatican Syr. 159, and (3) the brief discourse entitled Melchizedek the Priest.
The aim of the present paper is to clarify some passages in the apocryphal Apocalypse of Abraham (a biblical apocryphon which has survived only in Russian Slavonic manuscripts), especially the fragments connected with the theology of the Divine Name. The author of the paper also tries to reconstruct original Semitic forms which are reflected in the names of God in the Slavonic translation of the apocryphon. Finally he wants to demonstrate that the Slavonic translation circulated in a Russian Jewish milieu in the Middle ages and was subject to revision and amendment. Some Semitisms in the text appear as later additions, which seem to have been introduced by medieval Jewish writers.
The author presents a study of The Letter to Abbas Simeon, a well-known pseudepigraph included in the collection of ascetical works of Isaac the Syrian (7th century). The work proves to be The Letter to Patrikios by the West Syrian writer Philoxenos of Mabbog. Manuscript tradition of the interpolation and probable reasons for the false attribution are discussed. The latter were probably connected with the controversy over «Messalianism».
Thematic volume of the Gosudarstvo, religija, cerkov' v Rossii i za rubezhom (2/33, 2015) entitled “Hristianskij Vostok: gosudarstva i mezhkonfessional'nye svjazi” [Christian Orient: The States and Interconfessional Relations]; edited by Dr. N. Seleznyov.
The article deals with the Messalian movement and its infl uence on three confl icts in the Greek Christian milieu of the IV–V centuries AD. The fi rst confl ict took place in Cappadocia where imperial politics in Church matters put bishop Basil in opposition to his old friend ascetic Eustathios of Sebaste. Both advocated a special type of asceticism close to the ‘Messalian’ one. The ascetics thus nicknamed appeared by the same time in Cappadocia but in the relations of the two churchmen there was no discussion of the ‘Messalian heresy’ and Basil’s type of monastic life was rather ‘Messalian’. The second confl ict arose around John Chrysostom whose background was defi nitely Syriac. His asceticism developed under the guidance of a Syrian monk Julian Sabba, who was at the same time the teacher of Adelphius, the presumed founder of the ‘heresy’. The antipathy towards the archbishop in the capital was partly due to his unusual asceticism of the same ‘Messalian’ type. For the third confl ict around Alexander the Akoiemetos in Constantinople an important testimony is the mention of an unnamed heresy in the Dialogue by deacon Palladius. Tillemont has noted once that the heresy should be clearly the ‘Messalianism’ and there is a proof of it in the treatise by Nilus of Ancyra ‘Ad Magnam’. The main charge against John, Alexander and Adelphius was irregular ascetic behaviour. The analysis of two main lists of the heretical opinions (by Epiphanius and by Theodoretus) shows that none of these was shared by the accused. Thus the opinion of Kmosko, Fitschen and Caner about the falsifi ed nature of the accusation against ‘Messalians’ gets confi rmed. The real cause of the appearance of the ‘Messalian heresy’ lies in the cultural and behavioral confl ict of the two approaches to asceticism: Greek and Syriac.
The acme of the Arabic science and philosophy that is usually associated with the Abbasid times and Bet al-hikmah in Bagdad actually began long before, in the 6th c. with the great achievement of the Syriac science. The protagonist of that philosophical and medical movement was the chief medic of the city of Resh-‘ayna in Syria Sergius. Not only he translated a great deal of Greek medical and philosophical literature, but also he was adapting a sublime Neoplatonic theology to the Syriac language and culture. Theological profile of Sergius is of particular importance as he analyzed asceticism in his treatise ‘On spiritual Life’ under medical angle. In the article Sergius’medical approach is compared with his ascetical teaching. In making ascetical teaching closer to the medical care and medical science.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.