Барьеры для создания педагогических условий развития критического мышления в российских вузах
The article considers the conceptual approach of creating a set of development tools for active learning methods in a form of competency-based business-game studio. Competence-based business game is an information system, which aims to give a certain level of professional competence while implementing scenarios that are determined by business-process models of the domain. The structure of the gaming studio, suggests a set-theoretic representation of business-game design process. Business game can be represented as a cybernetic system with feedback, which contains both the object of management and the management system. The game is implemented as control and operating machines accordingly. For the construction of the operational machine it is proposed to use a knowledge model in the form of ontology. To represent the automate model it is proposed to use a model of managing business processes of an enterprise. A block diagram of the business-game design process is provided.
In the Soviet Union of the 1920s, the most prominent avant-garde artists were eager children's book illustrators. Reaching a mass audience of unformed, malleable young people appealed to their commitment to an art manifesto based on the creation of a new kind of person for the revolutionary age. At the same time, the opportunity to work for good pay along with a low risk of censorship were practical attractions. The Constructivist artists drew considerable attention in the West for their brilliant creativity in using geometric designs, machine-age forms, and an architectural sense of space in their approach to the visual arts. Rejecting easel painting as a passe bourgeois preoccupation, they turned to designing and mythologizing objects of everyday use. In a major reassessment of their work, Evgeny Steiner forcefully demonstrates that the Constructivists were as committed to implementing Utopia - regardless of the human cost - as their establishment counterparts. Basing his work almost completely on primary sources - Russian picture books from the Russian State Library, private collections, and publishers' archives - Evgeny Steiner tells his story in deft prose with a wry sense of humor. The solidness of his sources, the range of his interests, and the depth of his understanding of Russian life combine to make this an unusually perceptive book on a fascinating cultural issue that combines the visual arts, literature, and politics.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.