Платформенный урбанизм и положение работников
Materials was published based on the results of the VI International Scientific and Practical Conference “Sustainable Development: Society and Economics”, held as part of the International Labor Forum - 2019, organized by the Government of St. Petersburg and St. Petersburg State University on February 28 - March 01, 2019. The collection of materials is intended for students, bachelors, undergraduates, graduate students and teachers of economic specialties of universities, scientific and practical workers.
Abstract: The paper analyses the role of vocational education in formation of professional trajectories of Russian employed population during the period 2005-2015. Based on longitudinal data we explore the differences between career paths of workers that had the experience of vocational training and workers without such experience. We contribute the debate regarding vocational training and its role in innovation and economic development utilizing methodology of sequence analysis and Markov chains with long memory (mixture transition distribution models (MTD)). MTD models suggest the analysis of categorical data sequences instead of quantitative data that is standard for this kind of research. Such methodological approach allows not only estimating casual effects of participation in vocational education programs on the wage level, but exploring how vocational training influences the whole career path. Our findings suggest that those workers who participate in vocational training have lower probability of different negative events in their careers including job loss. Moreover, mixture transitions distribution models suggest that for such workers the current career status determined by longer history of previous career events than for those employees that had not any experience of participation in vocational education programs. These results give the evidence that vocational education is important factor of success on the labour market, providing greater flexibility of career paths that is crucial in innovation development of the labour market and economy as a whole. Findings of the study also have important policy implications. Importance of vocational training on individual level suggests that investment in vocational education on societal level will bring positive returns. This kind of education provides the flexibility of individuals on the labour market, through vocational training workers obtain new skills and knowledge that allows them utilizing new technologies and innovations. Development of vocational education may be considered as policy-making instrument that can generate positive economic outcomes.
In the article the concept of precariousness in labor relations is being developed. Presented a review of sociological theory that studies the precariousness of work and employment. On the materials of the two databases, 22 waves of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey and research of the behavior of employees of small and medium businesses in Nizhny Novgorod labor market was identified the development of precarious labor relations. It is noted the tense economic situation of the analyzed group, reducing the value of the work to the level of wages, willingness to change jobs even in case of small increases in pay. Was fixed a significant proportion of workers who experience anxiety regarding the possible loss of a job, lack of sense of stability and confidence in the near future of the majority of employees in small and medium business. However, the majority consider their situation as more or less satisfactory, close to the average in the background of their own environment.
В начале XXI века возникла и стала активно развиваться занятость населения через онлайн-платформы. Это стало отличительной чертой новой цифровой экономики. В настоящей работе прослеживается развитие платформенной занятости фрилансеров в Российской Федерации и на постсоветском пространстве в целом. В исследовании используются уникальные данные четырех онлайн-опросов, проведенных авторами в 2009, 2011, 2014 и 2019 годах на ведущей русскоязычной бирже удалённой работы для творческого и интеллектуального труда FL.ru. Общая методология, используемая для сбора и анализа данных каждого обследования, даёт возможность пролить свет на динамику ключевых показателей за десятилетний период. В исследовании рассматриваются социально-демографические характеристики фрилансеров, их карьерные траектории, мотивация, условия работы и удовлетворённость ею, а также проблемы, с которыми фрилансеры сталкиваются в своих отношениях с клиентами. В целом результаты указывают на возросшее значение платформ, распространение новой модели работы среди более широких слоев населения и распространённость неформальных отношений, которые могут препятствовать будущему развитию онлайн-рынка труда. Отсутствие основных трудовых прав, коллективного представительства и социальной защиты фрилансеров также вызывает серьёзную озабоченность.
This article is dedicated to studying the condition and characteristics of Russian youths’ behavior in the labor market during economic crisis. The analysis is based on data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). It is revealed that the negative aftermath of the economic crisis, as well as expectations for the further decline of the economic situation, has undermined youths’ confidence in the labor market. They find themselves in an especially vulnerable position when enterprises shut down or in the case of job cuts. Opportunities for finding a job in the field of secondary employment have narrowed out, and there has been an increase in the amount of young people who are willing to work without signing an employment contract, who are ready to accept unfavorable working conditions. There is an acute sensation of incongruity between the demand for qualified workforce and those specialties which young people receive at higher educational facilities and secondary schools. The crisis has not only exacerbated many of the problems which young people face in the labor market, but it also has stimulated growth in the activity of young Russians when it comes to overcoming emerging troubles, not to mention it increased their interest in utilizing irregular means of material provision.
The paper introduces the methods of assessing the effects of social assistance on work incentives, using representative Rosstat survey data as illustration. It also demonstrates the key steps of testing the hypothesis of the social benefits effect on work incentives, as well as the need for conducting multi-factor analysis coupled with impact evaluation methods. The key finding from descriptive analysis is that an average household that has recipients of social benefits among its members cannot rely on social benefits as a significant source of means of subsistence, therefore social transfers do not produce a sizeable effect on work behavior. Nevertheless, the authors propose a hypothesis that there are certain groups of social transfers beneficiaries whose work behavior may be strongly affected by social transfers. Firstly, this refers to recipients of social transfers, the size of which is comparable to the anticipated wage size. In such cases, social transfers can produce a negative employment effect. Secondly, this could refer to recipients, whose eligibility to social transfers is related to their belonging to a certain professional group. In this case, in all likelihood, social transfers create economic incentives to stay in these professional groups, reducing labor mobility. The testing and analysis of these hypothesis will be presented in forthcoming papers by the authors.
In this article, the authors examine the changes taking place in the social and labor structure of society, against the backdrop of the processes of mass informatization, globalization and the formation of network structures. The aim of the work is to consider a new trend in the labor market - Uberization, which is characterized by the establishment of horizontal links that replace the vertical hierarchy, when the link between the manufacturer and the consumer becomes an automated system. Thus, Uberization is a new stage in the formation of network structures in the labor market, described earlier by D. Pink and R. Florida. In these conditions, self-employment as a form of labor activity becomes especially important. The article reveals the main prerequisites for the emergence of Uberization and its characteristics.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.