Единая концепция истории древности Р.Ю. Виппера в его работах дореволюционного периода
The article gives an analysis of the concept underlying a series of works (fundamental university manuals) written in the last pre-revolutionary decades by the prominent Russian historian R.Yu. Vipper (1859—1954). These works sum up the material on all the three major sections of the ancient history – the Ancient Orient and the evolutionary counterparts of its societies in the Aegean world, pre-Hellenistic Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome before the Principate. Symptomatically, Vipper’s major interest was addressed to the stage of ancient history, at which the state formations were represented by small non-hierarchic communities. This stage fell at the very start of history at the Ancient Orient; at Ancient Greece and Rome it came to its end, respectively, with the emergence of the Hellenistic monarchies and of the Principate. According to Vipper, the non-hierarchic communities were the makers of civilization at the start of history and possessed a great creative capacity; he assessed negatively their transformation into hierarchic structures with vast territories but believed that the modern time came to be in a way a renaissance of non-hierarchic structures at a certain new level. This series of works by R.Yu. Vipper can be considered unique as an essay of a conceptual generalization for the entire ancient history by a single scholar.