Вовлеченное отцовство, заботливая маскулинность
Fatherhood is clearly changing in modern society, since patriarchal family structures have been largely destroyed, gender roles have changed, new identities of mother and father have emerged, which makes it necessary to study the communicative structure of the family / partnership. To what extent are fathers accessible to children, fill interaction with them with real content, and to what extent do they take responsibility for children? As a theoretical approach, the article develops a socio-constructivist platform on the basis of which the author discusses Alex Honnett's theory of social acceptance in relation to the concept of involved parenthood, as well as Carla Elliot's theory of caring masculinity. As an acceptable conceptual framework, the author builds a complementary gender construction, which allows relativizing hegemonic normative masculinity through a legitimizing discourse of care, which becomes gender neutral and frees up the space of paternal practices in the style of active paternity (paternal decree, paternal quota in parental leave).
The focus of the empirical research described in the article is the question of the continuity and differences of paternal practices over three generations. How do modern young people perceive paternal influence in comparison with maternal influence, what do their fathers in turn say about their fatherhood, and how do the generation of grandfathers remember their own childhood and the influence of their own parents? Has the concept of the paternal role changed, does the content of paternal practices remain the same and, at the same time, the discourse of paternity in society as a whole? The study is based on an analysis of a collection of 200 family cases collected, each of which is a three-generation cross-section of the problems of fatherhood, motherhood and socialization in the format of a semi-structured interview. For the analysis of the narrative content of the described paternal practices, categories have been identified that describe the phenomenon of paternity at different levels and make it possible to trace generational differences: in the mode of everyday action in upbringing, in the content of educational norms, in assessment and modes of justification regarding models of upbringing and participation in upbringing. The main empirical conclusion is that fatherhood "returns" to the family, its value is valorized as a meaningfully independent role.