Cryptocurrency in Russian law: Surrogates, “Other Assets” and Digital Currency
For the last five years there has been a global boom of interest in cryptocurrencies, followed by the fall of their rates; at the same time, there was a wave of enthusiasm regarding the public offering of tokens (ICO) and disillusionment in them (due partly to the active counteraction by American and other influential regulators). Disputes on doctrine moved from suggestions of a new object of property rights to prohibitive initiatives. As these eventful years have shown, the global financial system is sufficiently stable to digest even such a decentralized phenomenon as cryptocurrency. In my opinion, it is now time to recall the tribulations of former discussions and draw a conclusion concerning their interim (one hopes) normative results.
High rates of growth of the ICO market and its excess returns stipulate a significant interest of investors to projects which use initial token allocation (ICO) for attracting investments. This work takes into account the fact that even a potentially profitable project may fail to collect the required amount of money and to start placing tokens on the stock exchange. We are speaking about success of an ICO-campaign for fund raising. In order to estimate the influence of factors and check the suggested research hypotheses, logistic regression was used. The selection included 672 projects. As a dependent variable, the proportion of the amount collected in the ICO process from the required value is selected. Depending on the tested hypothesis the influencing variables took into account the presence of a pre-sale stage and the bounty program and also the price of the token, the upper limit of fund raising, the duration of the ICO-campaign and the number of team members. The work results allow token emitters to substantiate managing the success of the ICO-campaign of the project and the investors to see whether it deserves their attention. Besides, the obtained materials can be useful for specialists in forming the legal framework of token transactions.
Desde la perspectiva de la autora del presente estudio, esta última visión explica las recurrentes y cada vez más profundas crisis financieras del último tercio de siglo XX —especialmente la gran debacle económica de 2008—, que los gobiernos han enfrentado con políticas económicas erróneas porque, sin tener en cuenta la génesis de estos fenómenos, en lugar de generar crecimiento económico han priorizado el “rescate” de las instituciones financieras.
The papers in this special issue focus on the emerging phenomenon of cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are digital financial assets, for which ownership and transfers of ownership are guaranteed by a cryptographic decentralized technology. The rise of cryptocurrencies’ value on the market and the growing popularity around the world open a number of challenges and concerns for business and industrial economics. Using the lenses of both neoclassical and behavioral theories, this introductory article discusses the main trends in the academic research related to cryptocurrencies and highlights the contributions of the selected works to the literature. A particular emphasis is on socio-economic, misconduct and sustainability issues. We posit that cryptocurrencies may perform some useful functions and add economic value, but there are reasons to favor the regulation of the market. While this would go against the original libertarian rationale behind cryptocurrencies, it appears a necessary step to improve social welfare.
The article is essentially an analysis of the notion of «electronic money», including the legal definition set forth by the Federal law «On the national payment system», and other legal norms that can lead to a conclusion regarding the legal nature of the mentioned phenomenon. This analysis leads to a conclusion that electronic money can be defined through properties which make them different from other kinds of money, which are the order of fulfilling payment obligations and the moments legal consequences arise in respective settlement relations.
This book explores the contradictory development of gender roles in Central and Eastern Europe including Russia. In light of the social changes that followed the collapse of communism and the rise of new conservatism in Eastern Europe, it studies new forms of gender relationships and reassesses the status quo of female empowerment. Moreover, leading scholars in gender studies discuss how right-wing populism and conservative movements have affected sociopolitical discourses and concepts related to gender roles, rights, and attitudes, and how Western feminism in the 1990s may have contributed to this conservative turn.
Mainly focusing on power constellations and gender, the book is divided into four parts: the first explores the history of and recent trends in feminist movements in Eastern Europe, while the second highlights the dynamics and conflicts that gained momentum after neoconservative parties gained political power in post-socialist countries. In turn, the third part discusses new empowerment strategies and changes in gender relationships. The final part illustrates the identities, roles, and concepts of masculinity created in the sociocultural and political context of Eastern Europe.
Business Issues is a new Businss English course which helps students get ahead fast with skills and business vocabulary, it also gives students grammar practice in business contexts.
The author studies the Old Russian monetary unit grivna. He concludes that it was an abstract scaling term which was used to count and convert the different types of payment means known in pre-Mongol Rus' - metals (silver and gold), furs and wiped furs (skns).
In the real world both money and power turn out to be manifestations of a broader phenomenon – might, and are related to each other.
The article analyzes the possibility of using cryptocurrencies in the Russian Federation. It is shown that the prospects for the use of cryptocurrencies in Russia are unfavorable due to a number of limitations. An analysis of these constraints has been performed. A review of the possibilities of using cryptocurrencies in Russia under international sanctions is given.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/