Sprawl in Russia: Growth and Structural Transformation of the Belgorod Suburbs
The first sprouts of a new type of domestic suburbanization shown with a case study of Belgorod. The features of spatio-temporal dynamics of suburban development, the influence of different factors on this process, and the place of the new suburbia in the structure of the suburban area of the city are considered. A satellite image interpretation method is proposed based on remote analysis. Image selection criteria are considered. Interpretation features of different types of single-story development are given. The possibilities and limitations of this method are demonstrated. It is proved that the key feature of the Belgorod suburbanization in the post-Soviet period was the formation of vast areas of sprawl development that differed from the previously established areas of dacha and rural single-story settlements. There are two waves of sprawl development in this territory: the first wave was induced by the inflow of migrants from neighboring countries, and the second wave was induced by relatively high rates of economic development of the country and the region in the 2000s, which declined in the early 2010s. The expansion of genetically bound sprawl areas formed tree graphs, the roots of which are centers of suburban multistory development and leaves are younger generations of sprawl areas. The main factors affecting the emerging spatial configuration are access to engineering communications and transportation routes.
The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (ISPRS Archives) is the series of peer-reviewed proceedings published by the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS). In the early years of the Society, Archive Volumes were published independent of Congress or Technical Commission Symposia.
While there is a growing literature on state formation and the rise of state capacity over time, this literature typically deals with differences between countries, neglecting the fact that state formation also occurs differentially within a country over time. This article examines legacies of state formation spatially, by looking at variation within “frontier” states—countries that in recent centuries have extended rule over new territories adjacent to their core regions. Frontier zones are found to have ongoing lower levels of public order and deficient public goods provision. Several theories are examined to explain this discrepancy, including internal resettlement, costs of monitoring and enforcement, and the relationship between settlers and the indigenous population. It is argued that the formation of strong social institutions among settlers leads to resistance to attempts to impose governance over frontier regions, and to “select for” lower fiscal capacity and lower provision of public goods.
The archives of measurements at a network of stations of Roshydromet stocks of available water capacity and satellite measurements of relative soil moisture topsoil according with the instrument ASCAT (MetOp satellites) were used. The estimation of the statistical structure of the fields of available water capacity in the upper 10- and 20-cm soil layers, correlations were found between the data of remote sensing (RS) data and agrometeorological stations. Developed procedure for automated pre-control ground-based measurements. The algorithm is statistically optimal transform of remote sensing data in estimating the amount of moisture in the upper soil layer.
The article analyzes the near-Earth space as a future habitat for humankind. This article investigates the factors affecting the location in this environment. We estimate the boundaries of space and related space. The article highlights the main features of the near-Earth space as a human-friendly environment.
For the first time, using satellite Earth remote sensing data, the maps of air pollution risks by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over the territory of Europe with spatial resolution of 0.25º×0.25º (approximately 27.5 km × 18 km for the 48º latitude) were created. The suggested risk calculation technique is simple yet delivers extensive understanding of typical air pollution character. It is shown that the highest risks of air pollution by nitrogen dioxide in Europe are observed over Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and southern part of the North Sea as well as over large cities.
For the first time spatio-temporal characteristics of air pollution by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol over Ukraine and Europe are established. It was shown that moderate risks of air pollution by sulfur dioxide of eastern and western parts of Ukraine relate as 2:1. It was shown that values of moderate and high risks of European areas most polluted by aerosol (except the north of Italy) and Ukraine (Kyiv, Donetsk and Odessa regions) are approximately related as 1:1. Moderate levels of risks for Kiev, Donetsk and Odessa regions relate to moderate risk levels of other Ukrainian regions as 1.8:1. The maximum risk value of moderate pollution by nitrogen dioxide of the atmosphere of Europe and Ukraine relate as 3:1. The analysis of concentration dynamics of carbon dioxide for atmosphere of the whole earth for the last 8 years (2004–2011) revealed the increase for more than 20 ppm. It is shown that the atmosphere of Ukraine exposed to the same level of carbon monoxide pollution, as the atmosphere of other European countries.
The Twenty-Second International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF Rome 2015) will be held for the first time in the Faculty of Architecture of Rome ‘Sapienza’ University, from the 22nd to 26th September 2015. The Conference examines the theme “City as organism. New visions for urban life” and discusses changes and continuity in urban form, within the current global debate on the possibility of restoring the organicity of urban form to be found in historical cities. This volume contains the abstracts submitted to the Conference. The Conference opens with two introductory plenary sessions: 1: Rome as organism, 2: Urban morphology: state of the art; then 32 parallel sessions follow, organized around four main themes: Heritage and Historical Fabric (34 papers), Landscape and Territory (23 papers), Sustainable Design and Urban Regeneration (35 papers), Urban Form Reading and Design (42 papers); Urban Morphology Theories and Methods (46 papers). A special session is also dedicated to New Researchers’ Forum. The other two plenary sessions are in the second and third day programme, 3: Architectural approaches in designing urban form, 4: ISUF local networks forum.
To date, all remote sensing data are represented and stored as temporal sequences of separate “snapshots” – rasters or grids. This makes impossible to quickly obtain a time series of a variable values for the full available period for a region of a coordinate grid. Trend research – one of the most important topics in Earth science – becomes extremely complex and time consuming. This paper proposes an alternative data representation and corresponding storage technique. The data are represented as a collection of individual time series, one per each grid cell or raster pixel. New storage layout enables any time series to be always readily accessible. This approach considerably facilitates the application of existing time series techniques to remote sensing, climate reanalysis and similar data as well as provides new research and development opportunities not available before.
The article focuses on analysis of processes of transformation of way of life and of ritual practices people in territorially detached village during succession of generations (a case study of the Yazula village of Ulagan region of the Altai Republic). The research is based on comparison of expeditionary materials of 2003 and 2019 years. Changes of this period resulted to significant growth of “openness” of the village to “outside” world and to accessibility of public informational field for the locals. The author reveals how the “discovering” of the detached local community increases its cultural diversity in everyday life that creates the situation of necessity of self-determination for locals and their families on behavioral level.
This article describes a specific type of urban field research: the commercial-facility location problems as one of the practical problem of geomarketing. The education method presented in the article have been worked out and repeatedly applied during student field practices at the Geographical Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University; its elements — are part of the Vysokovsky Graduate School of Urbanism educational program. By solving simple practical problem (searching for the best location for some facility), students not only gain the skills of field work, but also learn to conduct complete researches on their own. Teaching students a comprehensive analysis of diverse and holistic urban space is the main goal of this method.
The authors examine the processes of internal and international labor migration in Russia. Available sources of statistical information and a survey of studies allow us to define them as quantitatively comparable, but having pronounced regional differences. Despite the gravitation of both internal and international migrants to the largest cities, Russian temporary labor migrants more often go to work in the regions of the North and the East of the country. Russians and foreign migrants complement each other in the regional labor markets rather than compete. The results of the recent research conducted by Institute for Social Analysis and Prediction Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, used in the article, allow us to state that the social and economic effects of international and internal labor migration are similar. At the same time the significance of migration for the economy of households and local budgets in Russia is underestimated.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.