Принятие решения в условиях неопределенности: стратегии исследования и использования
Decision-making under conditions of the lack of sufficient information is associated with hypotheses construction, verification and refinement. In a novel environment subjects encounter high uncertainty, thus behavior needs to be variable and targeted at testing the range of multiple options available; such variability allows acquiring information about the environment and finding the most beneficial options. This type of behavior is referred to as exploration. As soon as the internal model of the environment has been formed, the other strategy known as exploitation becomes preferential; exploitation presupposes using profitable options that have already been discovered by the subject. In a changing or complex (probabilistic) environment, it is important to combine these two strategies. The exploration-exploitation trade-off is a hot topic in psychology, neurobiology, and neuroeconomics. In this review, we discuss factors that influence exploration-exploitation trade-off and its neurophysiological basis, decision-making mechanisms under uncertainty, and switching between them. We address the roles of major brain areas and some important neurotransmitters involved in these processes.